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Stem Cells International
Volume 2019, Article ID 5387850, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5387850
Research Article

Directional Topography Influences Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Plasticity: Prospects for Tissue Engineering and Fibrosis

1University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen, Netherlands
2Laboratório de Cirurgia Cardiovascular e Fisiopatologia da Circulação (LIM-11), Instituto do Coração (InCor), Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
3University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Biomedical Engineering-FB40, W.J. Kolff Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science-FB41, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV, Groningen, Netherlands
4Institute for Translational Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Bio-fibers and Eco-textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Patrick van Rijn; ln.gcmu@njir.nav.p and Martin C. Harmsen; ln.gur@nesmrah.c.m

Received 9 August 2018; Revised 24 December 2018; Accepted 11 February 2019; Published 5 May 2019

Guest Editor: Chi Nan Pai

Copyright © 2019 Gabriel Romero Liguori et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Progenitor cells cultured on biomaterials with optimal physical-topographical properties respond with alignment and differentiation. Stromal cells from connective tissue can adversely differentiate to profibrotic myofibroblasts or favorably to smooth muscle cells (SMC). We hypothesized that myogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) depends on gradient directional topographic features. Methods. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples with nanometer and micrometer directional topography gradients (wavelength -10, 990 nm; amplitude -3, 425 nm) were fabricated. ASC were cultured on patterned PDMS and stimulated with TGF-β1 to induce myogenic differentiation. Cellular alignment and adhesion were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy after 24 h. After seven days, myogenic differentiation was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, gene expression, and immunoblotting. Results. Cell alignment occurred on topographies larger than . The number and total area of focal adhesions per cell were reduced on topographies from to . Focal adhesion alignment was increased on topographies larger than . Less myogenic differentiation of ASC occurred on topographies smaller than . Conclusion. ASC adherence, alignment, and differentiation are directed by topographical cues. Our evidence highlights a minimal topographic environment required to facilitate the development of aligned and differentiated cell layers from ASC. These data suggest that nanotopography may be a novel tool for inhibiting fibrosis.