MSC-Derived Exosome Promotes M2 Polarization and Enhances Cutaneous Wound Healing
MSCs skew macrophages to M2 through exosomes. (a) Immunofluorescence staining of CD68 (green) and RELM-α (red) at the wound site after systemic injection of BMMSC-, BMMSC/siRab27a-, or BMMSC-derived exosomes (a1); the percentage of M2 in CD68+ macrophages (a2) (). (b) Western blot analysis of RELM-α expression at the wound site. RELM-α expression was increased in the BMMSC and BMMSC-ex groups compared to the PBS and BM/siRab27a groups. (c) qRT-PCR analysis of Arg-1and TNF-α at the wound site. A high level of TNF-α and a low level of Arg-1 were detected in the PBS and BM/siRab27a groups compared to the BMMSC and BMMSC-ex groups (). Scale bar: 100 μm (a)., , and . Error bars are .