Succinate Supplement Elicited “Pseudohypoxia” Condition to Promote Proliferation, Migration, and Osteogenesis of Periodontal Ligament Cells
Exogenous succinate promoted proliferation, migration, and osteogenesis in hPDLCs. hPDLCs were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 25 mM of succinate. Cell proliferation was observed under the phase contrast microscope at 24 h (a). The CCK-8 assay was used to quantify cell growth (b). Transcription of cell cycle-related genes at 4 h was detected by qPCR (c). Scratch-healing model was utilized to analyze cell migration at 24 h (d). Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using ALP staining after 7 days and Alizarin Red S Staining after 21 days (e, f). Levels of osteogenesis-related genes in hPDLCs were analyzed by qPCR at 24 h () (g), and protein expression was detected by western blot at 72 h (h). Blots were representative of 3 independent tests. , relative to control; , relative to control.
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