Amygdalin Promotes Fracture Healing through TGF-β/Smad Signaling in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Amygdalin upregulated expression of chondrogenesis-, osteogenesis-, and angiogenesis-related genes in the callus. (a–f) Expressions of Sox9, Col2a1, Col10a1, Runx2, Ocn, and Vegf were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between control and amygdalin groups at days 7, 10, 14, and 21 postfracture. Data are the relative expression versus housekeeping gene β-actin and are presented as (SD). ,.
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