Costus afer: A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Data in support of Its Medicinal RelevanceRead the full article
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The Effect of Toileting Position in Uroflow Curves in Young Healthy Nulliparous Women
The objective of our study was to determine the effect of voiding positions on uroflow parameters in young, healthy nulliparous women with no pelvic floor disorders. Material and Methods. From December 2017 to February 2018, we performed a single-institution cross-sectional study with 30 healthy volunteers comparing uroflow curves in sitting and hovering positions. 49 participants were initially prescreened with a validated tool questionnaire for pelvic floor disorders and 30 participants who had absent symptoms were included for the final analysis. From the selected participants, demographics were collected and comparisons between the sitting and hovering position groups regarding the maximum flow rate (Qmax), average flow rate (Qave), voided volume (VV), and time to peak flow (TQmax) were conducted using either the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to determine whether height, BMI, and age have significant impact on the log-transformed average of the pre- and postvalues of either Qmax, Qave, VV, or TQmax, as the average of these values are not normally distributed. Results. There were no statistical differences between the hovering and sitting position groups on the maximum flow rate (), average flow rate (), voided volume (), and time to peak flow (). BMI had borderline significant impact on Qave with value = 0.0531. Conclusion. Different voiding toileting habits do not affect the most commonly used uroflow parameters in young healthy nulliparous patients. Results need to be corroborated by a larger scale study considering the small sample size of our study.
Morphological Diversity of Gracilaria blodgettii Harvey 1853 (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo
Gracilaria red algae are notable for their economic importance as agrophytes, sold as salad vegetable, and used as the base for selected food and nonalcoholic beverages. A wild population of Gracilaria exists in coastal areas of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, but there is only limited knowledge on species diversity and its abundance leaving the untapped economic potential of this resource. This study was carried out to determine diversity of wild Gracilaria populations in Lawas, Santubong, and Asajaya, Sarawak, using the combination of morphological character examination and 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1-5P) gene analysis. Identification of the species using morphological characters revealed three species, namely, Gracilaria changii, G. blodgettii, and G. arcuata, had been collected from the sampling sites. However, based on 672 bp CO1-5P gene sequence analysis, all the three species were identified as G. blodgettii; besides, low genetic divergence values (0.17%–0.34%) were scored between samples in this study with the same species in GenBank. In the phylogenetic trees, all samples in this study group together with other G. blodgettii have high bootstrap values; thus, this species is monophyletic. This study implies that species identification of Gracilaria and other seagrass taxa which have a phenotypic plasticity problem should include the CO1-5P gene analysis as it is a reliable gene marker for species diversity assessment.
Ecotype-Level Genetic Biodiversity of Five Italian Traditional Crops
Italy displays a high level of agrobiodiversity due to its diversified pedoclimatic zones. The Administrative Region of Campania includes several and divergent biomes, occurring close to each other. In fact, the distance between a sea level environment and that of high mountains can be less than 20 km. These environmental conditions allow the cultivation of many different crops and vegetables, represented by diverse ecotypes and varieties that are well adapted to the distribution range where they have been selected and grown. Efforts to maintain and further increase biodiversity in farming systems require a better understanding of the existing diversity created by traditional farming practices. The aim of our study was to identify and molecularly characterize several ecotypes belonging to five horticultural species commonly cultivated in Campania. In particular, we analysed five ecotypes of maize, two of garlic, four of onion, one of escarole, and two of courgette by means of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in order to evaluate their level of genetic biodiversity. The results reveal, for the first time, the high genetic biodiversity of horticultural ecotypes of the Campania Region. This feature is very important to improve the quality and productivity of agroecosystems.
Knowledge of Health Professionals on Cold Chain Management and Associated Factors in Ezha District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia
Background. Maintaining quality of vaccines has been one of the main challenges of immunization programs in Africa including Ethiopia, and this could mainly be explained by health professional’s knowledge about cold chain management. There are limited studies done in Ethiopia linking the knowledge of health professionals on cold chain management, and that is why we needed to conduct this study. Methodology. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among all available health professionals in selected health facilities (232 health professionals). Face-to-face interview using a semistructured questionnaire was conducted to collect required information from September to October 2016. Observational checklist was used to spot availability and functionality of refrigerators. Data entry and cleaning was done using Epi Info and exported to SPSS for analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with health professional’s knowledge about cold chain management. Result. The response rate was 92.43%, and 119 (51.3%; 95% CI; 44.9%, 57.6%) health professionals had a satisfactory knowledge about cold chain management. Being trained on immunization program (AOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 2.68, 10.13), having a work experience above six years (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.15), using EPI guidelines (AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.57), and being a BSc nurse/health officer (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.47, 14.4) had got better knowledge on cold chain management. Conclusion. Health professionals working in the health centers and health posts had low knowledge on cold chain management. Longer work experience, in-service training, and using EPI guideline at work were factors that improved health professionals’ knowledge about a cold chain management, which needs to be maintained.
Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants in Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka harbors over 3000 plant species, and most of these plants have been of immense importance in the traditional systems of medicine in the country. Although there is a rich reserve of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants, in-depth studies have not been pursued yet to compile the ethnoflora with traditional medicinal applications for the scientific community. Thus, as a continuation of our ethnobotanical inventory work in different regions in the country, the present study was carried out in one of the administrative districts in the North Central area of Sri Lanka known as Polonnaruwa district. The information on the significance of medicinal plants as curative and preventive agents of diseases was collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews from 284 volunteers who were randomly recruited for the study. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV), and use value (UV). Out of the total participants, 53.7% claimed the use of herbal remedies. A total of 64 medicinal plants belonging to 42 plant families were recorded, out of which Coriandrum sativum L. (RFC = 0.163) was the most cited species. Out of the 42 plant families recorded, the FIV was highest in Zingiberaceae. Coscinium fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr. was found as the plant with the highest use value. Furthermore, the majority of the nonusers of the herbal remedies were willing to adopt herbal products upon the scientific validation of their therapeutic potential. This study revealed that the indigenous herbal remedies are still popular among the local communities in the study area.
Omnivorous Behaviour of the Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina): A Neotropical Rodent with the Potential for Domestication
The agouti is a Neotropical rodent which is mainly utilized for its meat in rural communities. Recently, captive rearing of these animals by wildlife farmers have increased in the Neotropics. This short communication consists of observation of feeding behaviour of captive reared agoutis at the University of the West Indies Field Station in Trinidad and Tobago. This is the first time in Trinidad and Tobago that meat consumption and the omnivorous behaviour of the agouti have been documented in the literature. The consumption of chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs, dead chickens, and a brown dove (Zenaida macroura) by captive reared agoutis was noted. This document described the omnivorous behaviour of the agouti which is primarily considered a frugivorous animal. Similar studies in South America have shown that wild and captive reared agoutis consumed animal matter. Further work must be done on the dietary needs and nutrient requirements of the agouti at different physiological states.