Effects of Mulch Type, Plant Cultivar, and Insecticide Use on Sweet Potato Whitefly Population in Chili PepperRead the full article
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Factor VIII Intron 22 Inversion in Severe Hemophilia A Patients in Palestine
Background. Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by mutations in FVIII gene with an incidence of 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 live born males. The Inv22 mutation is a major cause of the disease worldwide, accounting for up to 40%–50% of severe FVIII mutations. The aim of the present study was to screen Inv22 of the FVIII gene in Palestinian patients with severe HA and reveal its role as a predisposing factor for the development of inhibitors. Materials and Methods. A cohort of 77 HA individuals including 5 carrier females from 52 unrelated families registered at governmental hemophilia centers in the West Bank area of Palestine was investigated. The demographic data and the clinical history were retrieved from medical files. Molecular analysis of Inv22 mutation in severe HA (30 cases) from Palestine was performed using the subcycling polymerase reaction (S-PCR). FVIII coagulant activities were carried out on an aPTT-based 1-stage clotting assay. FVIII inhibitors were quantified using the Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay. Result. Overall, 41.7% (30/72) of the studied cases were classified as having severe HA, 22.2% (16/72) had moderate HA, and 36.1% (26/72) had mild HA. Five randomly selected carrier mothers were screened for the Inv22 mutation to confirm its transmission to their sons. The Inv22 mutation was detected in 11 severe HA patients (36.6%). Among the severe HA patients with positive Inv22, 45.5% (5/11) had developed inhibitors. The current study showed that there was no association () between inhibitor development and the Inv22 mutation. Conclusion. Findings on Inv22 are in agreement with worldwide reports, being a major genetic mutation in severe HA. The S-PCR is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of Inv22 in severe HA patients. Although the Inv22 mutation was associated with 36.6% of severe HA phenotype cases, it was not a major predisposing factor for inhibitor formation.
Sustainable Nipa Palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.) Product Utilization in Thailand
Nipa palms, a plant species in mangrove forest, are valuable and beneficial for the local community’s economy as well as the conservation in the southern region of Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the use of nipa palms in Khanap Nak and focused on the type of products made from nipa palms and the yield of this plant through focus group discussion and interview with the farmers maintaining nipa palm forest. The results suggested that nipa palms in Khanap Nak can yield for 5–100 years. Apart from the benefits to the community in terms of sustainability, as it prevents erosion, it provides sources for the production of food (molasses, granulated sugar, syrup, and vinegar from sap) and raw materials (roofing material and cigarette paper from leaves and stem), which can generate income to community members. It was found that most of the communities earn 90–130 USD/day from palm sugar production. The quantity of nipa palm products varies in each season, resulting in different prices. In this regard, they can produce high quantity of products made from sap from January to March. However, the production of different types of sugar requires local knowledge and wisdom to ensure good quality. Nipa palm production is the sustainable way to utilize mangrove forest resources, leading to effective conservation and good life quality. Regarding problems and difficulties in farming, it was found that natural disaster is a major threat, such as drought, excessive amount of salt or freshwater in certain periods, and insect pests.
Effect of Plant Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Shewarobit, Central Ethiopia
Inappropriate spacing is one of the major problems in tomato production at the study area. A field experiment was conducted to determine inter- and intrarow plant spacing for yield and yield components of tomato at Shewarobit, central rift valley of Ethiopia, under irrigation condition. The treatment comprises of three intrarow spacing (20, 30, and 40 cm) and four interrow spacing (60, 80, 100, and 120 cm) replicated three times and arranged in randomized complete block design using tomato variety Weyno. Data collected on fruit yield and yield components were analysed using SAS. The main effect of interrow spacing significantly affected marketable fruit, unmarketable fruit, marketable fruit number, unmarketable fruit number, and fruit diameter. The 20 cm interrow spacing showed a marked increase in marketable fruit yield by 35.96% as compared to 30 cm spacing used by farmers. Planting tomato in closer interrow spacing (60 cm) resulted in 50% yield increment than the widest (120 cm) space between rows. Interaction effects of both inter- and intrarow spacing significantly ( < 0.05) affected plant height and fruit length. An intrarow and interrow spacing of 20 ∗ 100 cm and 20 ∗ 120 cm resulted in tallest plants and widest fruits, respectively. Therefore, farmers can use 20 cm intrarow spacing and 60 cm interrow spacing for planting of tomato seedling of Weyno variety.
In Vivo Comparison of Chlorine-Based Antiseptics versus Alcohol Antiseptic for Surgical Hand Antisepsis
Despite being commonly used as effective preparation for surgical hand antisepsis, alcohol solutions have major drawbacks, such as drying effect, emergence of hand eczema, and other diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as antiseptic in comparison to single sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol. In 5-day tests, the effects of 3 antiseptics were established according to standard test methods. The antiseptics were applied to the hands of 82 volunteers, and samples of bacteria were collected on days 1 and 5, immediately after drying and 6 hours later after antiseptic application. Student’s t test and ANOVA were applied in a statistical study. The NaOCl with H2O2 composition demonstrated noninferiority to both sodium hypochlorite only and alcohol products and superiority to these antiseptics on day 5 ( at a significance level of 5% for each comparative trial in this day) at equivalence margin of 20%. The effectiveness of the NaOCl plus H2O2 composition as an antiseptic was explained by the formation of singlet oxygen in the system. Together, these data suggest that NaOCl and H2O2 may be an effective hand antisepsis that avoids the drawbacks seen with alcohol solutions.
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant, Antiperoxidative, and Antihemolytic Properties Investigation of Three Apiaceae Species Grown in the Southeast of Morocco
For a long time, Apiaceae species have been widely employed in the southeast of Morocco for culinary and folk healing purposes. In the current study, we investigated three Apiaceae herbs known as coriander (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) for their antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and antihemolytic properties. The HPLC-DAD has been used to classify and measure phenolic compounds. The major phenolic compounds studied were p-coumaric, chlorogenic, caffeic acids, luteolin, and quercetin. The polyphenol level was also estimated via Folin–Ciocalteu’s method, aluminium chloride, and acidified vanillin. Parsley showed the highest polyphenol level and, thus, showed potential antioxidant activities demonstrated by DPPH, ABTS scavenging tests, and reducing power (FRAP), as well as TBARS assays. Very strong correlations were depicted among phenol levels and antioxidant assays (R2 ≥ 0.910) and among antihemolytic activity and flavonoids (R2 ≥ 0.927), indicating the implication of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids, in the antiradical properties. These finding may prove the traditional use of these Apiaceae species in the management of numerous disorders cited within the Moroccan pharmacopoeia.
Comprehensive Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among Ghanaian Adults from 1998 to 2014: A Multilevel Logistic Regression Model Approach
Background. In order for stakeholders of HIV and AIDS to effectively plan HIV prevention programs, it is expedient to assess the level of individuals’ knowledge on the most common preventive methods and misconceptions of the HIV virus. This study examines the trends and determinants of comprehensive knowledge (CK) of HIV and AIDS among Ghanaians from 1998–2014. Method. The data used for this study were drawn from the Ghana Demographic Health Surveys (GDHS), 1998–2014. A separate analysis was performed on each survey-year data and GDHS pooled dataset. Additionally, both the male and female datasets were combined. The samples used for the study were 6,389, 10706, 9484, and 13784 representing 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2014, respectively. The pooled dataset consisted of 40363 responses. The Pearson chi-square test and multilevel binary logistic regression analysis were carried out to assess the association between the study variables and CK of HIV and AIDS. Results. CK of HIV and AIDS was found to be lower in women than men (29.24% vs. 37.7%) using the pooled dataset. The Greater Accra region recorded the highest percentage of CK of HIV and AIDS (44.18%), whereas the Northern region recorded the lowest (17.87%) among the 10 administrative regions in Ghana. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS was also found to be less likely with an OR of 0.72 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.79, ) among persons living in rural areas even after controlling for other study variables. There is also a decrease of CK of HIV and AIDS from 37.35% in 2008 to 32.5% in 2014. The lowest percentage (10.75%) of CK of HIV and AIDS among the four survey years was recorded in 1998. Conclusion. There are generally low levels of comprehensive knowledge among the Ghanaian adult population more especially among women. Those residing in rural areas have lower prevalence of CK of HIV and AIDS. To address some of these challenges, there is the need to intensify educational interventions more especially among women and people leaving in rural areas to reverse some of the knowledge gaps and correct the local misconceptions of HIV and AIDS.