Comparison of Time Course Detection of Human Male DNA from Blood Stains on Various Objects on Surface in a Natural Environment and in a Laboratory Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)Read the full article
Scientifica publishes research articles and review articles covering a wide range of subjects in the life sciences, environmental sciences, health sciences, and medicine.
Scientifica maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Variation in Soil Organic Carbon under Different Forest Types in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal
Understanding distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in soil profile is important for assessing soil fertility and SOC stock because it varies with soils of different vegetation and land use types. In this context, the objective of this research is that it was conducted to determine key variance in the SOC stock in three different soil layers, 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm of different vegetation covers of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park of Kathmandu district, Nepal. Overall field measurement was based on standard national methods. We used the dichromate digestion method to analyse SOC concentrations. The highest SOC concentration (%) was recorded as 4.87% in 0–20 cm of oak forest and lowest 0.42% in 40–60 cm of Chir pine forest. Forest types (oak, upper mixed hardwood, lower mixed hardwood, and Chir pine) had SOC stock 149.62, 104.47, 62.5, and 50.85 t/ha, respectively, up to 60 cm depth. However, these values are significantly different () at 5% level of significance when comparing means between the forest types. The SOC stock was decreased with increased soil depth, though not significantly different at 5% level of significance. Further study with respect to different climate, soil, forest, and land use type is recommended.
Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in HIV-Positive Women with HPV Coinfection: A Preliminary Study
Objective. The present study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile and atherogenic indexes in HIV-positive women with and without coinfection with human papillomavirus. Methods. Preliminary study was conducted with HIV-positive women. Laboratory tests (lipid profile, glycid profile, and atherogenic indexes) and detection of human papillomavirus (nested PCR technique using PGMY 09 and 11 primers, GP+5, and GP+6) were performed. For the analysis of the results, the data were categorized into two groups: with coinfection (HIV+/HPV+) and without coinfection (HIV+/HPV–). Results. Eighty-two HIV-positive women, aged between 35 and 49 years, participated in this study among whom 50% had HPV coinfection (HIV+/HPV+). Regarding comorbidities, there was a predominance of dyslipidemia (46.3%). The analysis of laboratory determinations and atherogenic indexes showed statistical relevance in the serum concentrations of total cholesterol (), LDL cholesterol (), and non-HDL cholesterol (), as well as for the Castelli I index, Castelli II index, and atherogenic coefficient (, 0.04, and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion. The present study demonstrated a correlation between the lipid profile and atherogenic indexes with HIV/HPV coinfection, demonstrating a possible synergy between these viruses. However, further studies in this area must be carried out.
Determination of Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activity and GC-MS Analysis of Malaysian Stingless Bee Propolis Water Extracts
Propolis contains polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenols that are able to demonstrate a broad spectrum of biological activities including antioxidant, antibacterial, and many more. This study was carried out to determine the total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of water-extracted propolis samples from three different Indo-Malayan stingless bee species, namely, Tetrigona apicalis, Tetrigona binghami, and Homotrigona fimbriata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric and aluminium chloride methods, respectively, while the antioxidant activity was analysed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Results indicated that H. fimbriata extracts exhibit the highest TPC, TFC, and antiradical activity among all samples tested. Interestingly, the data also showed that the higher the concentration of the extract used, the higher the antioxidant activity exhibited by the samples. Statistically, there were no significant differences recorded between the different bee species’ propolis studied. In conclusion, the propolis extracts showed stronger antioxidant potential with higher TPC and TFC values. This study also noted the presence of bioactive compounds from local stingless bee propolis that could potentially be utilised for their medicinal and health benefits.
A Rainwater Harvesting and Treatment System for Domestic Use and Human Consumption in Native Communities in Amazonas (NW Peru): Technical and Economic Validation
The inhabitants of Tunants and Yahuahua face water supply problems in terms of quantity and quality, leading to socio-environmental and health impacts in the areas. The objective of this research, therefore, is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a proposal for a rainwater harvesting and treatment system for human consumption in the native communities. For the technical feasibility, monthly water demand per family was compared with the amount of water collected in the rainy and dry seasons. In addition, 16 physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of the water system. The economic feasibility was determined by the initial investment and maintenance of the systems; with the benefits, we obtained the net present social value (NPSV), social internal rate of return (SIRR), and cost-effectiveness (CE). Technically, oxygenation and chlorination in the storage tanks allowed for water quality in physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects, according to the D.S. N° 031-2010-SA standard, in all cases. Finally, with an initial investment of S/2,600 and S/70.00 for annual maintenance of the system, it is possible to supply up to six people per family with an average daily consumption of 32.5 L per person. It is suggested that the system be used at scale in the context of native communities in north-eastern Peru.
Epidemiological Dynamics of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- or AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Screened in Apparently Healthy Chickens in Uganda
The dynamics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) and AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria (which are deadly groups of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria) have not been well understood in developing countries. This raises major concerns to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) control. We investigated the prevalence and factors linked to the fecal carriage of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-/AmpC-EC) in commercial chickens. Cloacal swabs from 400 birds were sampled and submitted to the Central Diagnostic Laboratory for ESBL-/AmpC-EC screening by culture methods using MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime. Epidemiological data were collected using a structured questionnaire and plausible risk factor analyses prepared by R software using X2 test and logistic regression modeling. Results showed that the prevalence of ESBL-/AmpC-EC was 17.5%. Univariable screening hypothesized that carriage was probably influenced by a type of commercial chicken, geographical location, age group, flock size, and housing system (). Modeling exposed that broiler birds were at a higher risk of being ESBL-/AmpC-EC carriers (COR = 9.82, CI = 3.85–25.07). Birds from Wakiso Town Council (COR = 4.89, CI = 2.04–11.72) and flocks of 700–1200 birds were also at a higher risk of harboring ESBL-/AmpC-EC (COR = 2.41, CI = 1.11–5.23). Birds aged 4 months and below were more susceptible to ESBL-/AmpC-EC carriage compared with those aged 1 month and below being 6.33 times (CI = 1.65–24.35) likely to be carriers. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-EC in flocks suggests possible treatment failures while managing colibacillosis. Consequently, injudicious antimicrobial use should be replaced with an accurate diagnosis by bacterial culture and sensitivity testing so as to circumvent AMR emergence, spread, and associated losses.
Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase in Relationship to the Severity of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy among Newborn Infants
Introduction. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is defined as a neurological complication that results from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies had investigated various markers to early detect HIE; however, these markers appeared to have several drawbacks, especially in resource-limited settings. Aim. This study aimed at evaluating the predictive value of the salivary lactate dehydrogenase level as a potential predictor of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy for newborns. Materials and Methods. We included 30 neonates with HIE due to perinatal asphyxia and 30 healthy newborns that serve as controls, admitted at the intensive care unit for neonates and maternity ward at Ismailia area Clinics and Hospitals. We measured the LDH levels by using saliva samples that were collected for neonates maximum by 12 h after birth. Results. It was found that patients with HIE had a statistically significant higher salivary LDH level (1927 ± 390.3 IU/L) than patients without HIE (523.6 ± 142.8 IU/L) (). Moreover, salivary LDH showed a good discriminative ability where the AUC was 0.966 regarding salivary LDH (95% CI: 0.917–1.0) (). The best cutoff value was 1420 IU/L or more which showed the best results in predicting the occurrence of HIE with 98.3% and 97.6% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion. Salivary LDH can be considered as a useful noninvasive laboratory marker that can accurately predict HIE incidence among neonates with asphyxia within 12 hours from birth. The cases in the HIE group were assigned into three stages according to the Sarnat and Sarnat staging system: stage I: mild (irritable, normal, or hypertonia and poor feeding); stage II: moderate (lethargy, hypotonia, and frequent seizure); stage III: severe (coma, flaccid, absent reflexes, and frequent seizure). There is a positive association between LDH levels and the severity of HIE.