Epidemiological Dynamics of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- or AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Screened in Apparently Healthy Chickens in UgandaRead the full article
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Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase in Relationship to the Severity of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy among Newborn Infants
Introduction. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is defined as a neurological complication that results from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies had investigated various markers to early detect HIE; however, these markers appeared to have several drawbacks, especially in resource-limited settings. Aim. This study aimed at evaluating the predictive value of the salivary lactate dehydrogenase level as a potential predictor of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy for newborns. Materials and Methods. We included 30 neonates with HIE due to perinatal asphyxia and 30 healthy newborns that serve as controls, admitted at the intensive care unit for neonates and maternity ward at Ismailia area Clinics and Hospitals. We measured the LDH levels by using saliva samples that were collected for neonates maximum by 12 h after birth. Results. It was found that patients with HIE had a statistically significant higher salivary LDH level (1927 ± 390.3 IU/L) than patients without HIE (523.6 ± 142.8 IU/L) (). Moreover, salivary LDH showed a good discriminative ability where the AUC was 0.966 regarding salivary LDH (95% CI: 0.917–1.0) (). The best cutoff value was 1420 IU/L or more which showed the best results in predicting the occurrence of HIE with 98.3% and 97.6% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion. Salivary LDH can be considered as a useful noninvasive laboratory marker that can accurately predict HIE incidence among neonates with asphyxia within 12 hours from birth. The cases in the HIE group were assigned into three stages according to the Sarnat and Sarnat staging system: stage I: mild (irritable, normal, or hypertonia and poor feeding); stage II: moderate (lethargy, hypotonia, and frequent seizure); stage III: severe (coma, flaccid, absent reflexes, and frequent seizure). There is a positive association between LDH levels and the severity of HIE.
Determinants of Higher-Risk Sexual Behavior in Some Selected African Countries
Background. Although higher-risk sexual behavior (H-RSB) is a major contributor to the rapid rising rate of new HIV infections, there exists paucity of comprehensive evidence across the sub-Saharan African region. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of H-RSB and its determinants across sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy. Method. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of ten sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries with their three most current DHS surveys from 2000 to 2016. Only participants who ever had sexual encounters in their lifetime were included in the study. Weighted adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time was used to investigate disparities of H-RSB among the ten SSA countries. Relationships between sociodemographic, socioeconomic, knowledge, mass media, and H-RSB were investigated. Results. The trend and prevalence of higher-risk sexual behavior show that Lesotho experienced a decreasing trend of the prevalence of H-RSB from 8.92 in period one to 6.42 in period three. Ghana experienced a marginal increase from 6.22 in period one to 6.76 in period two and then to 6.43 in the third period. However, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe obtained a marginal increasing trend in the prevalence of H-RSB from period one to three: 2.75 to 3.74, 4.33 to 6.24, and 6.11 to 7.99, respectively. Meanwhile, the prevalence of H-RSB in Namibia and Uganda decreased in period two to 1.84 and 5.76 but increased in period three to 2.01 and 6.83, respectively. Generally, determinants of H-RSB among the countries include age, sex, religious affiliation, marital status, educational level, employment status, economic status, age at first sex, and status of circumcision. Conclusion. Trend of relatively high prevalence of H-RSB has been found across majority of the countries with key sociodemographic factors influencing H-RSB. Therefore, different targeted interventional approaches are needed in all the countries to help reduce H-RSB and the overall HIV incidence. If issues regarding sexual behavior and sexual health are not addressed adequately, H-RSB can negate all the appreciable efforts aimed at ending the HIV pandemic by 2030.
Phytochemical Screening and Potential Antibacterial Activity of Defatted and Nondefatted Methanolic Extracts of Xao Tam Phan (Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Guillaum) Peels against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria
Xao tam phan (Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Guillaum) is a traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam. Previous investigations reported mainly compounds and bioactivities of roots, stems, and leaves while there is limited information about those of fruits. This study aims to reveal the difference in the chemical profile of defatted peel (DP) and nondefatted peel (NDP) methanolic extracts of P. trimera using colorimetric reactions and liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. We also showed the potential antibacterial activity of two extracts against clinically isolated bacteria strains including P. aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and S. aureus with the MIC values < 100 μg/mL. This preliminary result proves the traditional usage of this herbal medicine and can be helpful for further investigation on the isolation and identification of the new compounds in P. trimera peels.
Characterization of Sweet Almond Oil Content of Four European Cultivars (Ferragnes, Ferraduel, Fournat, and Marcona) Recently Introduced in Morocco
This study concerns the characterization of oil content and quality indices for almond cultivars (Marcona (Mr), Fournat (Fn), Ferragnes (Fg), and Ferraduel (Fd)) recently introduced into marginal agricultural areas in eastern Morocco. These verities are known for their rusticity and late flowering stage. The analyzed almond oils showed low acidity and peroxide values ranging, respectively, from 0.32 to 0.36% and 1.88 to 3.18 meq O2/kg. Fatty acid (FA) profile revealed a predominance of the unsaturated FA represented essentially by the oleic (56.64–64.03%) and linoleic FA (24.57–29.80%). Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis allowed the determination of eleven species with a remarkable dominance of trioleylglycerol (OOO: 30%) and dioleyllinoleoylglcerol (OOL: 27.25%). Regarding the minor compounds, the results showed that the total phenol content ranges between 85.33 and 141.66 mg/kg. Concerning the tocopherol content, the studied oils showed richness in these secondary metabolites (408.99–491.77 mg/kg) with a dominance of α-tocopherol. In comparison to their homologues in the Mediterranean area, the evaluated almond oils demonstrated a slight superiority in terms of quality, in particular, to those produced in Spain.
Histological Analysis of Bone Callus in Delayed Union Model Fracture Healing Stimulated with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF)
Delayed union and nonunion fractures are clinical challenges for orthopedic surgeons. The development of fracture complications, such as delayed union and nonunion fractures, is still difficult to predict. Various methods are being investigated to improve fracture healing and prevent complications in patients. There are various methods to promote fracture healing, broadly divided into biological, chemical, and physical methods. One of the most widely used physical methods to promote fracture healing is the pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). This study aimed to evaluate the healing process of delayed union fracture after being stimulated by PEMF. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (n = 12) and the PEMF group (n = 12). Delayed union fracture was performed on the left femur of all rats. Subsequently, the PEMF group was given PEMF stimulus with a magnetic field intensity of 1.6 mT and a frequency of 50 Hz for 4 hours/day and 7 days/week. The fracture healing process was evaluated on days 5, 10, 18, and 28 based on the bone callus histology using safranin O fast green (SOFG) staining. The results of the histological analysis showed that bone cartilage was higher in the PEMF group than in the control group throughout the observation period. In addition, the PEMF group had less fibrous tissue at the beginning of the healing. This finding indicates PEMF stimulation has an effect on inducing osteogenesis on fracture healing and reducing the risk of delayed union.
Effect of Birth Interval on Foetal and Postnatal Child Growth
Background. Although available evidence suggests short birth intervals are associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, little is known about the extent to which birth spacing affects postnatal child growth. The present study assessed the independent association of birth interval with birth weight and subsequent postnatal growth indices. Methods. This retrospective cohort study carried out in the rural areas of Kassena-Nankana district of Ghana compared postnatal growth across different categories of birth intervals. Birth intervals were calculated as month difference between consecutive births of a woman. The study population comprised 530 postpartum women who had delivered a live baby in the past 24 months prior to the study. Results. Using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) that adjusted for age of the child, gender of the child, weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), birth weight, adequacy of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, and dietary diversity of the child, the mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) among children of short preceding birth interval (<24 months) was significantly higher than among children of long birth interval (that is, at least 24 months) ((0.51 versus −0.04) (95% CI: 0.24–0.87), = 0.001). The adjusted mean birth weight of children born to mothers of longer birth interval was 74.0 g more than children born to mothers of shorter birth interval (CI: 5.89–142.0, < 0.03). Conclusions. The results suggest that a short birth interval is associated positively with an increased risk of low birth weight (an indicator of foetal growth), but birth spacing is associated negatively with the LAZ (an indicator of postnatal growth).