Chronic Heart Failure: We Are Fighting the Battle, but Are We Winning the War?
Reductions in mortality observed in randomized, controlled trials evaluating drug or device therapies in patients with chronic heart failure that were powered for all-cause mortality and resulted in Level of Evidence A recommendations in clinical guidelines.
If the patient is unable to tolerate an ACE inhibitor, an angiotensin receptor blocker may be prescribed. ACE inhibitor: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. HF: heart failure. LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction. LBBB: left bundle branch block. CONSENSUS: cooperative north scandinavian enalapril survival study. SOLVD-T: studies of left ventricular dysfunction-treatment. CIBIS-II: cardiac insufficiency bisoprolol study II. MERIT-HF: metoprolol CR/XL randomised intervention trial in congestive heart failure. COPERNICUS: carvedilol prospective randomized cumulative survival. RALES: randomized aldactone evaluation study. EMPHASIS HF: eplerenone in mild patients hospitalization and survival study in heart failure. MADIT-II: multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial II. SCD-HeFT: sudden cardiac death in heart failure trial (SCD-HeFT). COMPANION: comparison of medical therapy, pacing, and defibrillation in heart failure. CARE-HF: cardiac resynchronization in heart failure study. RAFT: resynchronization/defibrillation for ambulatory heart failure trial.