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Scientifica
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 152879, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/152879
Review Article

The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Received 18 August 2013; Accepted 27 October 2013

Academic Editors: C. Avellini, K. Jung, and W. Vogel

Copyright © 2013 Paul Craig Turner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated.