Table 4: Approaches to the prevention and diagnosis of IA.

StrategyRationaleLaboratory diagnostic use

ProphylaxisPrevention of infection using antifungal treatment and protective accommodationNone
EmpiricEarly antifungal therapy in response to non-specific signs and symptomsNone (blood cultures are typically done to detect bacteremia and fungemia)
PreemptiveAntifungal therapy in response to early specific markers of IACT, GM, PCR, and BDG usually one or two markers triggering therapy
TargettedAntifungal therapy of clearly defined cases of IAAll available investigations, using EORTC-MSG criteria