Scientifica / 2013 / Article / Fig 7

Review Article

Structure and Physiological Actions of Ghrelin

Figure 7

Molecular mechanisms leading to ghrelin-induced food intake in the hypothalamus. Intracellular signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism resulting in NPY/AGRP secretion consecutive to ghrelin receptor activation are schematized. ACC: acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase; AGRP: agouti-related protein; AMPK: 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; BSX: brain-specific homeobox transcription factor; CaMKK2: calmodulin kinase-kinase 2; CB1: cannabinoid receptor type 1; CPT1: carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1; CREB: cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate response element-binding protein; FAS: fatty acid synthase; FoxO1: forkhead box protein O1; GHS-R1a: growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a; Gq: Gq protein; LCFA: long chain fatty acid; LCFA-CoA: long chain fatty acyl coenzyme A; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; NPY: neuropeptides Y; p: phosphorylated state; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; and UCP2: uncoupling protein-2.

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