Scientifica / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

Table 3

Odds ratios and 95% CIs of unhealthy eating behaviors for cardiometabolic conditions.

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4

LNDE alone
 (total  46,732)a
  Current smoking1.46 (1.39–1.52)††1.16 (1.10–1.21)††1.15 (1.09–1.21)††1.16 (1.10–1.22)††
  Daily alcohol drinking2.27 (2.15–2.39)††2.20 (2.08–2.32)††2.23 (2.10–2.36)††2.23 (2.10–2.36)††
  Having regular exercise0.87 (0.83–0.91)††0.84 (0.80–0.88)††0.85 (0.81–0.89)††0.85 (0.80–0.89)††
  Elevated blood pressure1.11 (1.06–1.16)††1.07 (1.02–1.12)1.01 (0.96–1.06)
  Low HDL-C0.83 (0.77–0.91)††0.97 (0.89–1.06)0.89 (0.81–0.97)*
  High–normal HbA1c0.92 (0.87–0.97)1.07 (1.01–1.13)*1.02 (0.97–1.08)
  Proteinuria1.11 (1.02–1.21)*1.09 (1.00–1.19)*1.08 (0.99–1.18)1.06 (0.97–1.16)
  Continuous BMI1.03 (1.03–1.04)††
  MetS1.15 (1.08–1.23)††1.15 (1.08–1.23)††
 Six BMI categories ( )
  ≤18.9 kg/m2 (4,206)0.97 (0.89–1.06)
  19.0–20.9 kg/m2 (9,576)0.95 (0.89–1.02)
  21.0–22.9 kg/m2 (12,257)1 (reference)
  23.0–24.9 kg/m2 (9,974)1.08 (1.01–1.15)*
  25.0–26.9 kg/m2 (5,745)1.21 (1.12–1.30)††
  ≥27.0 kg/m2 (4,974)1.34 (1.24–1.45)††
Skipping breakfast alone
 (total  42,394)b
  Current smoking3.13 (2.98–3.29)††2.88 (2.72–3.04)††2.84 (2.68–3.01)††2.85 (2.69–3.02)††
  Daily alcohol drinking1.17 (1.10–1.26)††1.03 (0.95–1.11)1.03 (0.96–1.11)1.03 (0.95–1.11)
  Having regular exercise0.73 (0.69–0.78)††0.73 (0.68–0.78)††0.72 (0.68–0.77)††0.73 (0.68–0.78)††
  Elevated blood pressure0.96 (0.91–1.01)1.12 (1.06–1.19)1.10 (1.03–1.17)
  Low HDL-C1.05 (0.95–1.15) 1.02 (0.92–1.12)0.98 (0.89–1.09)
  High-normal HbA1c0.74 (0.69–0.79) ††0.99 (0.92–1.07)0.97 (0.90–1.04)
  Proteinuria1.50 (1.37–1.64) ††1.35 (1.23–1.49)††1.35 (1.22–1.49)††1.33 (1.21–1.47)††
  Continuous BMI1.01 (1.00–1.02)*
  MetS1.07 (0.99–1.16)1.06 (0.97–1.15)
 Six BMI categories ( )
  ≤18.9 kg/m2 (3,996)1.15 (1.04–1.27)
  19.0–20.9 kg/m2 (8,915)1.05 (0.97–1.14)
  21.0–22.9 kg/m2 (11,158)1 (reference)
  23.0–24.9 kg/m2 (8,911)1.03 (0.95–1.11)
  25.0–26.9 kg/m2 (5,002)1.00 (0.91–1.10)
  ≥27.0 kg/m2 (4,412)1.18 (1.07–1.30)
Skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE
 (total  41,616)c
  Current smoking3.56 (3.38–3.76)††2.79 (2.63–2.96)††2.76 (2.60–2.92)††2.78 (2.62–2.96)††
  Daily alcohol drinking2.12 (1.98–2.27)††1.90 (1.77–2.05)††1.93 (1.78–2.08)††1.92 (1.78–2.08)††
  Having regular exercise0.71 (0.67–0.76)††0.69 (0.64–0.74)††0.69 (0.64–0.74)††0.69 (0.65–0.74)††
  Elevated blood pressure1.05 (1.00–1.11) 1.16 (1.09–1.23)††1.07 (1.00–1.14)
  Low HDL-C0.86 (0.77–0.96)0.92 (0.82–1.03)0.84 (0.75–0.95)
  High-normal HbA1c0.76 (0.71–0.82)††1.10 (1.02–1.19)*1.04 (0.96–1.13)
  Proteinuria1.53 (1.39–1.69)††1.39 (1.25–1.54)††1.37 (1.24–1.52)††1.34 (1.21–1.48)††
  Continuous BMI1.04 (1.03-1.04)††
  MetS1.19 (1.09–1.29)††1.17 (1.08–1.28)
 Six BMI categories ( )
  ≤18.9 kg/m2 (3,848)1.16 (1.04–1.29)
  19.0–20.9 kg/m2 (8,662)1.06 (0.97–1.15)
  21.0–22.9 kg/m2 (10,879)1 (reference)
  23.0–24.9 kg/m2 (8,757)1.10 (1.01–1.19)*
  25.0–26.9 kg/m2 (5,005)1.20 (1.09–1.32)
  ≥27.0 kg/m2 (4,465)1.54 (1.40–1.70)††

The number of total subjects in each analysis comprises that of normal eating behavior (  34,971) plus that of LNDE alone (  11,761)a, skipping breakfast alone (  7,423)b, or skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (  6,645)c.
* , , †† .
The number of subjects and those with confounding factors in each unhealthy eating behavior group is the same as that in Table 1.
Model 1: Unadjusted.
Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, current smoking (versus noncurrent smoking), daily alcohol consumption (versus infrequent/no alcohol consumption), having regular exercise (versus nonregular exercise), and past history of cardiovascular disease (versus nonpast history).
Model 3: Adjusted as for Model 2 plus MetS and proteinuria.
Model 4: Adjusted as for Model 2 plus elevated blood pressure, low HDL-C, high-normal HbA1c, BMI categories, and proteinuria.

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