Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2014, Article ID 423817, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/423817
Review Article

Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Mechanistic Approach to Investigate Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Treatment

1School of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2Department of Paediatrics, University of Otago, Christchurch, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
3Department of Gastroenterology, Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
4Westfield Research Laboratories, Level 2, Sydney Children’s Hospital, High Street, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia

Received 27 January 2014; Revised 24 April 2014; Accepted 5 May 2014; Published 21 May 2014

Academic Editor: Nadeem Ahmad Afzal

Copyright © 2014 Lily Nahidi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. Binder, “Epidemiology of IBD during the twentieth century: an integrated view,” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 463–479, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. M. Griffiths, “Specificities of inflammatory bowel disease in childhood,” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 509–523, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Pfefferkorn, G. Burke, A. Griffiths et al., “Growth abnormalities persist in newly diagnosed children with crohn disease despite current treatment paradigms,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 168–174, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. C. Escher, “Inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents: recommendations for diagnosis—the Porto criteria,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Armitage, H. E. Drummond, D. C. Wilson, and S. Ghosh, “Increasing incidence of both juvenile-onset Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Scotland,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1439–1447, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. A. Molodecky and G. G. Kaplan, “Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 339–346, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. M. Griffiths and H. B. Buller, “Inflammatory bowel diseases,” in Pediatric Gastorintestinal Disease, W. A. Walker, J. R. Hamilton, J. B. Watkins, P. R. Durie, and J. A. Walker-Smith, Eds., chapter 41, pp. 613–652, BC Decker, Ontario, Canada, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. Danese, M. Sans, and C. Fiocchi, “Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of environmental factors,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 394–400, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. B. Hanauer, “Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic opportunities,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. S3–S9, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. Koutroubakis, O. N. Manousos, S. G. Meuwissen, and A. S. Pena, “Environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 381–393, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  11. F. Fava and S. Danese, “Intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: friend of foe?” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 557–566, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Stojancevic, K. Stankov, and M. Mikov, “The impact of farnesoid X receptor activation on intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 631–637, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Ardizzone, P. S. Puttini, A. Cassinotti, and G. B. Porro, “Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. S253–S259, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. A. Hendrickson, R. Gokhale, and J. H. Cho, “Clinical aspects and pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 79–94, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Larsen, K. Bendtzen, and O. H. Nielsen, “Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 97–114, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Bastida and B. Beltrán, “Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 22, pp. 2740–2747, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Birrenbach and U. Böcker, “Inflammatory bowel disease and smoking. A review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic implications,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 848–859, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. T. Rubin and S. B. Hanauer, “Smoking and inflammatory bowel disease,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 855–862, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Hoentjen, S. B. Hanauer, J. Hart, and D. T. Rubin, “Long-term treatment of patients with a history of ulcerative colitis who develop gastritis and pan-enteritis after colectomy,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 52–57, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. S. Day, O. Ledder, S. T. Leach, and D. A. Lemberg, “Crohn's and colitis in children and adolescents,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 41, pp. 5862–5869, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. T. S. Hansen, T. Jess, I. Vind et al., “Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study based on a Danish inception cohort,” Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 577–584, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. S. Mekhjian, D. M. Switz, and C. S. Melnyk, “Clinical features and natural history of Crohn's disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 898–906, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Ardizzone and G. Bianchi Porro, “Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 252, no. 6, pp. 475–496, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. L. Edelblum and J. R. Turner, “The tight junction in inflammatory disease: communication breakdown,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 715–720, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Fiocchi, “Inflammatory bowel disease: etiology and pathogenesis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 182–205, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Förster, “Tight junctions and the modulation of barrier function in disease,” Histochemistry & Cell Biology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 55–70, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. G. Laukoetter, P. Nava, and A. Nusrat, “Role of the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 401–407, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. K. Linskens, X. W. Huijsdens, P. H. M. Savelkoul, C. M. J. E. Vandenbrouckc-Grauls, and S. G. M. Meuwissen, “The bacterial flora in inflammatory bowel disease: current insights in pathogenesis and the influence of antibiotics and probiotics,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Supplement, vol. 36, no. 234, pp. 29–40, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. G. Hyun and L. Mayer, “Mechanisms underlying inflammatory bowel disease,” Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 457–462, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. A. Finnie, B. J. Campbell, B. A. Taylor et al., “Stimulation of colonic mucin synthesis by corticosteroids and nicotine,” Clinical Science, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 359–364, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  31. T. E. King Jr., D. Savici, and P. A. Campbell, “Phagocytosis and killing of Listeria monocytogenes by alveolar macrophages: smokers versus nonsmokers,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 1309–1316, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. K.-S. Ko, N.-F. Sham, X. Guo, and C.-H. Cho, “Beneficial intervention of experimental colitis by passive cigarette smoking through the modulation of cytokines in rats,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. G. Miller, G. Goldstein, M. Murphy, and L. C. Ginns, “Reversible alterations in immunoregulatory T cells in smoking. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry,” Chest, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 526–529, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. J. Motley, J. Rhodes, G. Williams, I. A. Tavares, and A. Bennett, “Smoking, eicosanoids and ulcerative colitis,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 288–289, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. E. Sher, S. Bank, R. Greenberg et al., “The influence of cigarette smoking on cytokine levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 73–78, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. P. M. van Dijk, M. A. C. Meijssen, A. J. B. W. Brouwer et al., “Transdermal nicotine inhibits interleukin 2 synthesis by mononuclear cells derived from healthy volunteers,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 664–671, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Wang, M. Yu, M. Ochani et al., “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6921, pp. 384–388, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Cabre and E. Domenech, “Impact of environmental and dietary factors on the course of inflammatory bowel disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 29, pp. 3814–3822, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  39. C. A. Chapman-Kiddell, P. S. W. Davies, L. Gillen, and G. L. Radford-Smith, “Role of diet in the development of inflammatory bowel disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 137–151, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. K. Hou, B. Abraham, and H. El-Serag, “Dietary intake and risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of the literature,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 563–573, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Reif, I. Klein, F. Lubin, M. Farbstein, A. Hallak, and T. Gilat, “Pre-illness dietary factors in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 754–760, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. P.-G. Persson, A. Ahlbom, and G. Hellers, “Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study,” Epidemiology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. O. Hunter, “Nutritional factors in inflammatory bowel disease,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 235–237, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Nieto, M. D. Giron, M. D. Suarez, and A. Gil, “Changes in plasma and colonic mucosa fatty acid profiles in rats with ulcerative colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid,” Digestive Diseases & Sciences, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2688–2695, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. Sakamoto, S. Kono, K. Wakai et al., “Dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a multicenter case-control study in Japan,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 154–163, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Shoda, K. Matsueda, S. Yamato, and N. Umeda, “Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn disease in Japan: increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn disease in Japan,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 741–745, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  47. D. K. Amre, S. D'Souza, K. Morgan et al., “Imbalances in dietary consumption of fatty acids, vegetables, and fruits are associated with risk for crohn's disease in children,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 2016–2025, Erratum to “Imbalances in dietary consumption of fatty acids, vegetables, and fruits are associated with risk for crohn's disease in children”, American Journal of Gastroenterology,vol. 112, no. 11, p. 2614, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Jakobsen, A. Paerregaard, P. Munkholm, and V. Wewer, “Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease—a population based study 2007–2009,” Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. R. Barclay, R. K. Russell, M. L. Wilson, W. H. Gilmour, J. Satsangi, and D. C. Wilson, “Systematic review: the role of breastfeeding in the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 421–426, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Vermeire and P. Rutgeerts, “IBD in 2012: pathogenesis and management of IBD—thinking outside the box,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 67–69, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  51. C. Rüegg, M. Hersberger, B. Wusk et al., “Detection of the Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg and Leu1007fsinsC polymorphisms of the NOD2/CARD15 gene by real-time PCR with melting curve analysis,” Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 494–498, Erratum to "Detection of the Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg and Leu1007fsinsC polymorphisms of the NOD2/CARD15 gene by real-time PCR with melting curve analysis', Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine, vol. 42, no. 12, p. 1457, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Mo, J. P. Boyle, C. B. Howard, T. P. Monie, B. K. Davis, and J. A. Duncan, “Pathogen sensing by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) is mediated by direct binding to muramyl dipeptide and ATP,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 287, no. 27, pp. 23057–23067, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  53. Y. Linderson, F. Bresso, E. Buentke, S. Pettersson, and M. D'Amato, “Functional interaction of CARD15/NOD2 and Crohn's disease-associated TNFα polymorphisms,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 305–311, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. B. Sartor, “Pathogenesis and immune mechanisms of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 5S–11S, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. A. Clowes, B. L. Riggs, and S. Khosla, “The role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 208, pp. 207–227, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. F. A. Sylvester, P. M. Davis, N. Wyzga, J. S. Hyams, and T. Lerer, “Are activated T cells regulators of bone metabolism in children with Crohn disease?” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 461–466, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Tilg, A. R. Moschen, A. Kaser, A. Pines, and I. Dotan, “Gut, inflammation and osteoporosis: basic and clinical concepts,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 684–694, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Shen, M. J. Ruddy, P. Plamondon, and S. L. Gaffen, “Cytokines link osteoblasts and inflammation: microarray analysis of interleukin-17- and TNF-α-induced genes in bone cells,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 388–399, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Franchimont, C. Reenaers, C. Lambert et al., “Increased expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin in the colon of Crohn's disease patients,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 491–498, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. R. Moschen, A. Kaser, B. Enrich et al., “The RANKL/OPG system is activated in inflammatory bowel diseases and relates to the state or bone loss,” Gut, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 479–487, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. Vidal, P. Serrant, B. Schlosser, P. van den Broek, F. Lorget, and A. Donnet-Hughes, “Osteoprotegerin production by human intestinal epithelial cells: a potential regulator of mucosal immune responses,” American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal & Liver Physiology, vol. 287, no. 4, pp. G836–G844, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. N. Bernstein, J. F. Blanchard, W. Leslie, A. Wajda, and B. N. Yu, “The incidence of fracture among patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 133, no. 10, pp. 795–799, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. Gokhale, M. J. Favus, T. Karrison, M. M. Sutton, B. Rich, and B. S. Kirschner, “Bone mineral density assessment in children with inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 902–911, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. N. Bernstein, M. Sargent, and W. D. Leslie, “Serum osteoprotegerin is increased in Crohn's disease: a population-based case control study,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 325–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Skinner, T. Lerer, N. Wyzga, A. Viswanathan, and F. Sylvester, “S1225 Fecal osteoprotegerin: a marker for pediatric ulcerative colitis at diagnosis—a Pilot Study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 134, Supplement 1, no. 4, p. A-205, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  66. C. N. Bernstein, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as secondary causes of osteoporosis,” Current Osteoporosis Reports, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 116–123, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Jahnsen, J. A. Falch, P. Mowinckel, and E. Aadland, “Bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based prospective two-yearfollow-up study,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. J. Robinson, F. Al Azzawi, S. J. Iqbal et al., “Osteoporosis and determinants of bone density in patients with Crohn's disease,” Digestive Diseases & Sciences, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2500–2506, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. J. Robinson, S. J. Iqbal, K. Abrams, F. Al-Azzawi, and J. F. Mayberry, “Increased bone resorption in patients with Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 699–705, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Nahidi, S. T. Leach, M. A. Sidler, A. Levin, D. A. Lemberg, and A. S. Day, “Osteoprotegerin in pediatric Crohn's disease and the effects of exclusive enteral nutrition,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 516–523, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. L. Nahidi, S. T. Leach, D. A. Lemberg, and A. S. Day, “Osteoprotegerin exerts its pro-inflammatory effects through nuclear factor-kB activation,” Digestive Diseases & Sciences, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3144–3155, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. S. Day, K. E. Whitten, and N. S. H. de Jong, “Nutrition and nutritional management of Crohn's disease in children and adolescents,” Current Nutrition and Food Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. S. Day, K. E. Whitten, M. Sidler, and D. A. Lemberg, “Systematic review: nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 293–307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Ferrante and G. van Assche, “Medical therapy and mucosal healing,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1294–1299, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Harris, E. R. Feller, and S. A. Shah, “Medical therapy of IBD in 2009,” Medicine & Health, Rhode Island, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 78–81, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Papa, G. Mocci, F. Scaldaferri et al., “New therapeutic approach in inflammatory bowel disease,” European Review for Medical & Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 33–35, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. B. Heuschkel, C. C. Menache, J. T. Megerian, and A. E. Baird, “Enteral nutrition and corticosteroids in the treatment of acute Crohn's disease in children,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 8–15, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. O'Morain, A. W. Segal, and A. J. Levi, “Elemental diet as primary treatment of acute Crohn's disease: a controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 288, no. 6434, pp. 1859–1862, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. I. R. Sanderson, S. Udeen, and P. S. W. Davies, “Remission induced by an elemental diet in small bowel Crohn's disease,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 123–127, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Verma, S. Brown, B. Kirkwood, and M. H. Giaffer, “Polymeric versus elemental diet as primary treatment in active Crohn's disease: a randomized, double-blind trial,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 735–739, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Zachos, M. Tondeur, and A. M. Griffiths, “Enteral nutritional therapy for induction of remission in Crohn's disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, p. CD000542, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. M. E. Fell, M. Paintin, F. Arnaud-Battandieri et al., “Mucosal healing and a fall in mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by a specific oral polymeric diet in paediatric Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 281–289, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. O'Sullivan and C. O'Morain, “Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease,” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 561–573, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. S. Day, K. E. Whitten, D. A. Lemberg et al., “Exclusive enteral feeding as primary therapy for Crohn's disease in Australian children and adolescents: a feasible and effective approach,” Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1609–1614, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. K. E. Whitten, S. T. Leach, T. D. Bohane, H. J. Woodhead, and A. S. Day, “Effect of exclusive enteral nutrition on bone turnover in children with Crohn's disease,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 399–405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. E. Whitten, S. T. Leach, T. D. Bohane, H. J. Woodhead, and A. S. Day, “Effect of exclusive enteral nutrition on bone turnover in children with Crohn's disease,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 399–405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. D. Levin, V. Wadhera, S. T. Leach et al., “Vitamin D deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease,” Digestive Diseases & Sciences, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 830–836, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. P. Jorgensen, J. Agnholt, H. Glerup et al., “Clinical trial: vitamin D3 treatment in Crohn's disease-a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 377–383, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  89. B. Thjodleifsson, G. Sigthorsson, N. Cariglia et al., “Subclinical intestinal inflammation: an inherited abnormality in Crohn's disease relatives?” Gastroenterology, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 1728–1737, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. N. S. H. de Jong, S. T. Leach, and A. S. Day, “Polymeric formula has direct anti-inflammatory effects on enterocytes in an in vitro model of intestinal inflammation,” Digestive Diseases & Sciences, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2029–2036, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. Nahidi, A. S. Day, D. A. Lemberg, and S. T. Leach, “Differential effects of nutritional and non-nutritional therapies on intestinal barrier function in an in vitro model,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 107–117, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  92. L. Nahidi, S. T. Leach, H. M. Mitchell et al., “Inflammatory bowel disease therapies and gut function in a colitis mouse model,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 909613, 15 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. E. J. Breese, C. A. Michie, S. W. Nicholls et al., “The effect of treatment on lymphokine-secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa of children with Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 547–552, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. D. Meister, J. Bode, A. Shand, and S. Ghosh, “Anti-inflammatory effects of enteral diet components on Crohn's disease-affected tissues in vitro,” Digestive & Liver Disease, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 430–438, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. E. Pryce-Millar, S. H. Murch, R. B. Heuschkel et al., “Enteral nutrition therapy in Crohn's disease changes the mucosal flora,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, vol. 39, supplement 1, p. s289, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  96. P. Lionetti, M. L. Callegari, S. Ferrari et al., “Enteral nutrition and microflora in pediatric Crohn's disease,” Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. S173–S175, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. T. Leach, H. M. Mitchell, W. R. Eng, L. Zhang, and A. S. Day, “Sustained modulation of intestinal bacteria by exclusive enteral nutrition used to treat children with Crohn's disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 724–733, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus