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Volume 2014, Article ID 438030, 10 pages
Research Article

Radiosensitivity and Induction of Apoptosis by High LET Carbon Ion Beam and Low LET Gamma Radiation: A Comparative Study

1Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India
2Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064, India
3Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India

Received 20 February 2014; Accepted 22 May 2014; Published 15 June 2014

Academic Editor: Nicolaas A. Franken

Copyright © 2014 Atanu Ghorai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Apoptosis Induction as Detected by Nuclear Fragmentation. We showed that carbon ion beam irradiation induced more nuclear fragmentation than gamma radiation in both HeLa and HsiI cells (PARP-1 knocked down cells) as discussed in the main manuscript. Furthermore, HsiI cells were found to have more number of fragmented nuclei than HeLa for both types of radiation as shown in Figure 4 in the main manuscript. Here, the typical photographs of undamaged nucleus and the nucleus irradiated with 4 Gy of carbon ion beam in HsiI cells are shown in Figure S1 (a) & S1 (b) respectively.

Apoptosis Induction as Detected by Caspase-3 Activity Assay. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation with carbon ion beam and gamma was measured by the fold increase of caspase-3 activity in both HeLa and HsiI cells with compared to unirradiated HeLa cells as shown in Figure 5 in the main manuscript. Here, we have also plotted the same findings as % caspase-3 activity in Figure S2. The caspase-3 activity in unirradiated HeLa was taken as 100% caspase-3 activity and accordingly rest were calculated and plotted. Our data showed that carbon ion beam induced caspase-3 activity was always significantly higher than the gamma induced caspase-3 activity in a particular cell type.

  1. Supplementary Figures