Influenza Viral Manipulation of Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling to Modulate Host Defense System
NF-κB signaling pathway and its regulation by influenza virus. (a) The canonical pathway involves activation of the IKK complex, IKK-mediated IκBα phosphorylation, and subsequent degradation, resulting in nuclear translocation of the heterodimer RelA(p65)/p50. (b) The noncanonical pathway is dependent on phosphorylation-induced p100 processing. This leads to activation/translocation of the RelB/p52 complex. (c) Influenza virus activates the NF-κB pathway to facilitate the amplification of vRNAs and production of progeny viruses. Newly synthesized influenza viral proteins antagonize the activation of NF-κB signaling and inhibit the function of antiviral proteins or immunoregulatory molecules induced by the pathway.
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