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Scientifica
Volume 2014, Article ID 903014, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/903014
Review Article

XB130—A Novel Adaptor Protein: Gene, Function, and Roles in Tumorigenesis

1Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8
3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8
4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 149 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 1P5

Received 10 February 2014; Accepted 15 May 2014; Published 5 June 2014

Academic Editor: Patrick Auberger

Copyright © 2014 Xiao-Hui Bai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Several adaptor proteins have previously been shown to play an important role in the promotion of tumourigenesis. XB130 (AFAP1L2) is an adaptor protein involved in many cellular functions, such as cell survival, cell proliferation, migration, and gene and miRNA expression. XB130’s functional domains and motifs enable its interaction with a multitude of proteins involved in several different signaling pathways. As a tyrosine kinase substrate, tyrosine phosphorylated XB130 associates with the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and subsequently affects Akt activity and its downstream signalling. Tumourigenesis studies show that downregulation of XB130 expression by RNAi inhibits tumor growth in mouse xenograft models. Furthermore, XB130 affects tumor oncogenicity by regulating the expression of specific tumour suppressing miRNAs. The expression level and pattern of XB130 has been studied in various human tumors, such as thyroid, esophageal, and gastric cancers, as well as, soft tissue tumors. Studies show the significant effects of XB130 in tumourigenesis and suggest its potential as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer treatments.