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Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 4516920, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4516920
Review Article

Advances in the Use of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice

Laboratório de Cardiologia Molecular e Celular, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia/Instituto de Cardiologia, Princesa Isabel Avenue 370, 90620-001 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Received 31 December 2015; Revised 30 March 2016; Accepted 16 May 2016

Academic Editor: Mustapha Najimi

Copyright © 2016 Melissa Medeiros Markoski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals.