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Scientifica
Volume 2016, Article ID 8485417, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8485417
Research Article

Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy and Tropical Medicine Center, Hodeidah University, P.O. Box 3114, Hodeidah, Yemen
2Program of Health and Drug, Tihama Foundation for Drug Studies and Research, Hodeidah, Yemen
3The Yemeni-Swedish Hospital, Taiz, Yemen
4Independent Consultant, Seattle, WA, USA

Received 31 December 2015; Revised 19 April 2016; Accepted 5 May 2016

Academic Editor: Joaquim Ruiz

Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.