Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Scientifica
Volume 2017, Article ID 4179326, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4179326
Review Article

The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare

1Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, No. 301, 9509-156 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5P 4J5
2Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 2935-66 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6K 4C1
3University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Gerry K. Schwalfenberg; ac.wahs@flawhcsg

Received 5 April 2017; Revised 25 June 2017; Accepted 7 August 2017; Published 28 September 2017

Academic Editor: Osman Kucuk

Copyright © 2017 Gerry K. Schwalfenberg and Stephen J. Genuis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Horton, “The neglected epidemic of chronic disease,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9496, article 1514, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. J. Genuis, “What's out there making us sick?” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, Article ID 605137, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. J. Genuis, “Nutritional transition: a determinant of global health,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 615–617, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Schwalfenberg, “Not enough vitamin D: health consequences for Canadians,” Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien, vol. 53, no. 5, Article ID 17872747, pp. 841–854, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. Lo, “Integrating nutrition as a theme throughout the medical school curriculum,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, supplement 3, pp. 882S–889S, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  6. W. J. Fawcett, E. J. Haxby, and D. A. Male, “Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 302–320, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. J. Elin, “Assessment of magnesium status for diagnosis and therapy,” Magnesium Research, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. S194–S198, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. T. Kubota, Y. Shindo, K. Tokuno et al., “Mitochondria are intracellular magnesium stores: investigation by simultaneous fluorescent imagings in PC12 cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Molecular Cell Research, vol. 1744, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. H. Ko, S. Hong, and P. L. Pedersen, “Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase: magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 41, pp. 28853–28856, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Piovesan, G. Profiti, P. L. Martelli, and R. Casadio, “The human ‘magnesome’: detecting magnesium binding sites on human proteins,” BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 13, supplement 14, article S10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. L. V. Avioli and M. Berman, “Mg28 kinetics in man,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1688–1694, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. P. Dijkers and Task Force on Systematic Reviews and Guidelines, “The value of traditional reviews in the era of systematic reviewing,” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 423–430, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  13. N.-E. L. Saris, E. Mervaala, H. Karppanen, J. A. Khawaja, and A. Lewenstam, “Magnesium: an update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 294, no. 1-2, pp. 1–26, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Speich, B. Bousquet, and G. Nicolas, “Reference values for ionized, complexed, and protein-bound plasma magnesium in men and women,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 246–248, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  15. The National Academies Press, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. Rujner, J. Socha, M. Syczewska, A. Wojtasik, H. Kunachowicz, and A. Stolarczyk, “Magnesium status in children and adolescents with coeliac disease without malabsorption symptoms,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1074–1079, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Galland, “Magnesium and inflammatory bowel disease,” Magnesium, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 78–83, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. K. Rude, “Magnesium deficiency: a cause of heterogenous disease in humans,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 749–758, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. R. Shane and E. B. Flink, “Magnesium deficiency in alcohol addiction and withdrawal,” Magnesium and Trace Elements, vol. 10, no. 2-4, pp. 263–268, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Barbagallo, G. Di Bella, V. Brucato et al., “Serum ionized magnesium in diabetic older persons,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 502–509, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Barbagallo, M. Belvedere, G. Di Bella, and L. J. Dominguez, “Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease,” Magnesium Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. S115–S121, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Moshfegh, J. Goldman, and L. Cleveland, What we eat in America, NHANES 2001–2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes, USDA Agricultural Research Department, 2005.
  23. D. E. King, A. G. Mainous III, M. E. Geesey, and R. F. Woolson, “Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels,” The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 166–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. A. M. Griffiths, D. M. Cook, D. L. Eggett, and M. J. Christensen, “A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 393–401, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. W. Heaton, “Magnesium metabolism and its disorders,” The Clinical Biochemist Reviews, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 47–66, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  26. G. J. Krejs, M. J. Nicar, J. E. Zerwekh, D. A. Norman, M. G. Kane, and C. Y. C. Pak, “Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and magnesium absorption in the healthy human jejunum and ileum,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 973–976, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. C. Campbell, C. Stockmann, A. Balch et al., “Intrapartum magnesium sulfate and the potential for cardiopulmonary drug-drug interactions,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 544–548, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Samsel and S. Seneff, “Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies,” Surgical Neurology International, vol. 6, article 45, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. I. Cakmak, A. Yazici, Y. Tutus, and L. Ozturk, “Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, manganese, magnesium, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean,” European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 114–119, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. Jahnen-Dechent and M. Ketteler, “Magnesium basics,” Clinical Kidney Journal, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. i3–i14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. E. Kotlinska-Hasiec, M. Makara-Studzinska, M. Czajkowski et al., “Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting,” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 181–184, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. T. Pawlick, The End of Food, Douglas and McIntyre Publishing Group, Vancouver, Canada, 2006.
  33. R. J. Elin, “Re-evaluation of the concept of chronic, latent, magnesium deficiency,” Magnesium Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 225–227, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. C. Hermes Sales, D. Azevedo Nascimento, A. C. Queiroz Medeiros, K. Costa Lima, LF. Campos Pedrosa, and C. Colli, “There is chronic latent magnesium deficiency in apparently healthy university students,” Nutricion Hospitalaria, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 200–204, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. W. J. Song and Y. S. Chang, “Magnesium sulfate for acute asthma in adults: a systematic literature review,” Asia Pacific Allergy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 76–85, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. G. L. Colice, “Comparative effectiveness of intravenous and inhaled magnesium in acute asthma,” Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 437–441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. S. Goodacre, J. Cohen, M. Bradburn et al., “The 3Mg trial: a randomised controlled trial of intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate versus placebo in adults with acute severe asthma,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 1–168, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Medalle, C. Waterhouse, and T. J. Hahn, “Vitamin D resistance in magnesium deficiency,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 854–858, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  39. V. Reddy and B. Sivakumar, “Magnesium-dependent vitamin-d-resistant rickets,” The Lancet, vol. 303, no. 7864, pp. 963–965, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. L. L. Hardwick, M. R. Jones, N. Brautbar, and D. B. Lee, “Magnesium absorption: mechanisms and the influence of vitamin D, calcium and phosphate,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  41. K. M. Ryder, R. I. Shorr, A. J. Bush et al., “Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1875–1880, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Aydin, O. Deyneli, D. Yavuz et al., “Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 136–143, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Dimai, S. Porta, G. Wirnsberger et al., “Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 2742–2748, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. J. E. Sojka, “Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 71–74, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Castiglioni, A. Cazzaniga, W. Albisetti, and J. A. M. Maier, “Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions,” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 3022–3033, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. W. Nieves, “Skeletal effects of nutrients and nutraceuticals, beyond calcium and vitamin D,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 771–786, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. R. Garrison, G. M. Allan, R. K. Sekhon, V. M. Musini, and K. M. Khan, “Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. L. Young and D. Jewell, “Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. I. H. Nygaard, A. Valbø, S. V. Pethick, and T. Bøhmer, “Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps?” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 23–26, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Takaya and K. Kaneko, “Small for gestational age and magnesium in cord blood platelets: intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life,” Journal of Pregnancy, vol. 2011, Article ID 270474, 5 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. O. Barbosa, T. S. Okay, and C. R. Leone, “Magnesium and intrauterine growth restriction,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 10–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. M. Makrides and C. A. Crowther, “Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Rudnicki, A. Frolich, W. F. Rasmussen, and P. McNair, “The effect of magnesium on maternal blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 445–450, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Duley, “Magnesium sulphate in eclampsia,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9121, pp. 67-68, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. T. Pringsheim, W. Davenport, G. Mackie, I. Worthington et al., “Canadian Headache Society guideline for migraine prophylaxis,” The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 39, supplement 2, no. 2, pp. S1–S59, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. A. Peikert, C. Wilimzig, and R. Köhne-Volland, “Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study,” Cephalalgia, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 257–263, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. E. Bigal, C. A. Bordini, S. J. Tepper, and J. G. Speciali, “Intravenous magnesium sulphate in the acute treatment of migraine without aura and migraine with aura. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Cephalalgia, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 345–353, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Koseoglu, A. Talaslioglu, A. S. Gonul, and M. Kula, “The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura,” Magnesium Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 101–108, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  59. E. S. Ford, C. Li, L. C. McGuire, A. H. Mokdad, and S. Liu, “Intake of dietary magnesium and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1139–1146, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Wang, G. Persuitte, B. C. Olendzki et al., “Dietary magnesium intake improves insulin resistance among non-diabetic individuals with metabolic syndrome participating in a dietary trial,” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 3910–3919, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. J. Kim, P. Xun, K. Liu et al., “Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2604–2610, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. A. Hruby, J. S. Ngwa, F. Renstrom et al., “Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin, with no evidence of interaction with select genetic loci, in a meta-analysis of 15 charge consortium studies,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 345–353, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. N. Veronese, S. Watutantrige-Fernando, C. Luchini et al., “Effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 70, no. 12, article 1463, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. J. P. Sheehan, “Magnesium deficiency and diabetes mellitus,” Magnesium and Trace Elements, vol. 10, no. 2-4, pp. 215–219, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  65. J.-H. Huang, Y.-F. Lu, F.-C. Cheng, J. N.-Y. Lee, and L.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of magnesium intake with metabolic parameters, depression and physical activity in elderly type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 11, article 41, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. S. C. Larsson and A. Wolk, “Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 262, no. 2, pp. 208–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. R. Lopez-Ridaura, W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm et al., “Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 134–140, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. I. De Leeuw, W. Engelen, C. De Block, and L. Van Gaal, “Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm),” Magnesium Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  69. P.-C. T. Pham, P.-M. T. Pham, P.-A. T. Pham et al., “Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with more rapid decline of renal function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 429–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Barragan-Rodriguez, M. Rodriguez-Moran, and F. Guerrero-Romero, “Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trial,” Magnesium Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 218–223, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  71. P. G. Weston, “Magnesium as a sedative,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 637-638, 1922. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. G. A. Eby and K. L. Eby, “Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 362–370, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. Jacka, S. Overland, R. Stewart, G. Tell, I. Bjelland, and A. Mykletun, “Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland health study,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M.-L. Derom, C. Sayón-Orea, J. M. Martínez-Ortega, and M. A. Martínez-González, “Magnesium and depression: a systematic review,” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 191–206, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. Nechifor, “Magnesium in major depression,” Magnesium Research, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 163S–166S, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  76. H. Murck, “Ketamine, magnesium and major depression—from pharmacology to pathophysiology and back,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 955–965, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Kapur and R. Friedman, “Oral ketamine: a promising treatment for restless legs syndrome,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1558-1559, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. B. Abbasi, M. Kimiagar, K. Sadeghniiat, MM. Shirazi, M. Hedayati, and B. Rashidkhani, “The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 12, Article ID 23853635, pp. 1161–1169, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  79. M. Hornyak, U. Voderholzer, F. Hohagen, M. Berger, and D. Riemann, “Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study,” Sleep, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 501–505, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Nechifor, D. Chelarescu, I. Mandreci, and N. Cartas, “Magnesium influence on nicotine pharmacodependence and smoking,” in Proceedings of the Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium, vol. 17, pp. 176–81, 2004, PubMed PMID.
  81. M. Nechifor, “Magnesium and zinc involvement in tobacco addiction,” Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, supplement 2, pp. 1–5, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. T. Hanano, Y. Hara, J. Shi et al., “Involvement of TRPM7 in cell growth as a spontaneously activated Ca2+ entry pathway in human retinoblastoma cells,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 403–419, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. E. Sahmoun and B. B. Singh, “Does a higher ratio of serum calcium to magnesium increase the risk for postmenopausal breast cancer?” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 315–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. P. A. Wark, R. Lau, T. Norat, and E. Kampman, “Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 622–631, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. G. Chen, Z. Pang, and Q. Liu, “Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1182–1186, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. B. Ettinger, C. Y. C. Pak, J. T. Citron, C. Thomas, B. Adams-Huet, and A. Vangessel, “Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis,” Journal of Urology, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 2069–2073, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Y. Rayssiguier, “Role of magnesium and potassium in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis,” Magnesium, vol. 3, no. 4-6, pp. 226–238, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  88. M. Barbagallo, L. J. Dominguez, A. Galioto, A. Pineo, and M. Belvedere, “Oral magnesium supplementation improves vascular function in elderly diabetic patients,” Magnesium Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 131–137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. S. E. Chiuve, E. C. Korngold, J. L. Januzzi, M. L. Gantzer, and C. M. Albert, “Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 253–260, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. S. E. Chiuve, Q. Sun, G. C. Curhan et al., “Dietary and plasma magnesium and risk of coronary heart disease among women,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 2, no. 2, Article ID e000114, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Houston, “The role of magnesium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 843–847, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. P. Ryan and H. R. Brady, “The role of magnesium in the prevention and control of hypertension,” Annals of Clinical Research, vol. 16, supplement 43, pp. 81–88, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  93. H. O. Dickinson, D. J. Nicolson, F. Campbell et al., “Magnesium supplements for the management of essential hypertension in adults,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. W. Dabrowski, Z. Rzecki, M. Sztanke, J. Visconti, P. Wacinski, and K. Pasternak, “Magnesium supplementation reduces atrial fibrillation episodes in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass,” Magnesium Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 205–217, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. H. Kohno, T. Koyanagi, H. Kasegawa, and M. Miyazaki, “Three-day magnesium administration prevents atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 117–126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. M. Khan, S. A. Lubitz, L. M. Sullivan et al., “Low serum magnesium and the development of atrial fibrillation in the community: the framingham heart study,” Circulation, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. F. H. Nielsen, D. B. Milne, L. M. Klevay, S. Gallagher, and L. Johnson, “Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 121–132, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. O. Onalan, E. Crystal, A. Daoulah, C. Lau, A. Crystal, and I. Lashevsky, “Meta-analysis of magnesium therapy for the acute management of rapid atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 1726–1732, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. Bobkowski, A. Nowak, and J. Durlach, “The importance of magnesium status in the pathophysiology of mitral valve prolapse,” Magnesium Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35–52, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. O. B. Stepura and A. I. Martynow, “Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH),” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 145–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. Ikee, T. Toyoyama, T. Endo, M. Tsunoda, and N. Hashimoto, “Impact of sevelamer hydrochloride on serum magnesium concentrations in hemodialysis patients,” Magnesium Research, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 184–190, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. Z. A. Massy, I. Nistor, M. Apetrii et al., “Magnesium-based interventions for normal kidney function and chronic kidney disease,” Magnesium Research, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 126–140, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. L. Yu, H. Li, and S. Wang, “Serum magnesium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients,” Blood Purification, vol. 43, no. 1-3, pp. 31–36, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. A. Rosanoff and M. S. Seelig, “Comparison of mechanism and functional effects of magnesium and statin pharmaceuticals,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 501–505, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. Lal, K. Vasudev, A. K. Kela, and S. K. Jain, “Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on the lipid profile and blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, vol. 51, pp. 37–42, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  106. F. Facchinetti, P. Borella, G. Sances, L. Fioroni, R. E. Nappi, and A. R. Genazzani, “Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 177–181, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. H. Park, G. L. Parker, C. H. Boardman, M. M. Morris, and T. J. Smith, “A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 859–863, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. R. Agarwal, I. N. Iezhitsa, P. Agarwal, and A. A. Spasov, “Mechanisms of cataractogenesis in the presence of magnesium deficiency,” Magnesium Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 2–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. F. Ekici, Ş. Korkmaz, E. E. Karaca et al., “The role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of glaucoma,” International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2014, Article ID 745439, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. M. S. Seelig, “Consequences of magnesium deficiency on the enhancement of stress reactions; preventive and therapeutic implications (A review),” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 429–446, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. C. L. Thwaites, L. M. Yen, S. M. Cordon et al., “Effect of magnesium sulphate on urinary catecholamine excretion in severe tetanus,” Anaesthesia, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 719–725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. L. J. Dominguez, M. Barbagallo, F. Lauretani et al., “Magnesium and muscle performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 419–426, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  113. N. Veronese, L. Berton, S. Carraro et al., “Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: A randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 974–981, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. W. Rowe, “Correcting magnesium deficiencies may prolong life,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 7, pp. 51–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. O. R. Nogovitsina and E. V. Levitina, “Diagnostic value of examination of the magnesium homeostasis in children with attention deficit syndrome with hyperactivity,” Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika, no. 5, pp. 17–19, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  116. M. Mousain-Bosc, M. Roche, A. Polge, D. Pradal-Prat, J. Rapin, and J.-P. Bali, “Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. I. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders,” Magnesium Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. B. Starobrat-Hermelin and T. Kozielec, “The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test,” Magnesium Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 149–156, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. S. Bitarafan, M. H. Harirchian, S. Nafissi et al., “Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients,” Iranian Journal of Neurology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  119. S. Ozturk and A. E. Cillier, “Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of dementia patients,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1223–1225, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. M. Ordak, J. Matras, E. Muszynska, T. Nasierowski, and M. Bujalska-Zadrozny, “Magnesium in schizophrenia,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 929–934, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. M. Yasui, T. Kihira, and K. Ota, “Calcium, magnesium and aluminum concentrations in Parkinson's disease,” Neurotoxicology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 593–600, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  122. M. Toyran, M. Kaymak, E. Vezir et al., “Trace element levels in children with atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 341–334, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  123. E. Proksch, H.-P. Nissen, M. Bremgartner, and C. Urquhart, “Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. Y. Valdman-Grinshpoun, D. Ben-Amitai, and A. Zvulunov, “Barrier-restoring therapies in atopic dermatitis: current approaches and future perspectives,” Dermatology Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 923134, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. A. Koppes, F. Charles, L. A. Lammers, M. Frings-Dresen, S. Kezic, and T. Rustemeyer, “Efficacy of a cream containing ceramides and magnesium in the treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, emollient- and hydrocortisone-controlled trial,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 96, no. 7, pp. 948–953, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. R. Russo and R. Reggiani, “Variability in antinutritional compounds in hempseed meal of italian and french varieties,” Plant, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 25–29, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. H. W. Lopez, F. Leenhardt, and C. Remesy, “New data on the bioavailability of bread magnesium,” Magnesium Research, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 335–340, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  128. M. Sircus, Transdermal Magnesium Therapy: A New Modality for the Maintenance of Health, iUniverse, Bloomington, Indiana, 2011.