Table 2: Diverse types of benefits related to orphan African crops.

Beneficial traitCropsReference

Agronomy-related
Drought-tolerantAfrican rice, bambara groundnut, cassava, cowpea, enset, Ethiopian mustard, grass pea, pearl millet, tef, yam[1016]
Waterlogging tolerantTef[17]
Salinity-tolerantSorghum (moderately tolerant)[18]
Heat-tolerantCow pea, pearl millet[19]
Adaptation to poor soilAfrican rice, cassava, cowpea[12, 14, 19]
Early maturing (drought escape)African rice, amaranth, fonio[12, 13]
Erosion control (fast ground cover)Cowpea[20]
Disease toleranceAfrican rice, Ethiopian mustard, tef[12, 16, 17]
Pest toleranceAfrican rice, Ethiopian mustard, tef[12, 16, 17]
Nutrition-related
Complete food (protein, carbohydrate, fate)bambara groundnut[13]
Rich in essential amino acidsAmaranth, bambara groundnut, cowpea, finger millet, fonio, grass pea[10, 12, 13, 21]
Rich in ironBanana, fonio, tef[12, 22]
High vitamin A contentBanana[23]
High oil contentNoug [Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.][24]
Health-related
Gluten-freeTef, millets[25, 26]
Low glycemic indexFinger millet[27]
Anticancer propertyMillets[28]