Table 3: Mechanisms of orphan crops tolerance to diverse abiotic stresses.

Abiotic stressTraitResponse to stressCropReference

DroughtSeed yieldHigh yield for drought-tolerant genotypesPearl millet[29]
Flowering timeAdjust phenology to rainfall patternPearl millet[30]
Shoot lengthDecreased under droughtLittle millet[31]
Root lengthIncreased under droughtLittle millet[31]
Leaf tensile strengthIncreased in drought-tolerant plantsTef[32]
Water extractionLess extraction before flowering; more extraction after floweringPearl millet[29]
Chlorophyll contentDecreased under droughtLittle millet[31]

WaterloggingCellular structureAerenchyma formationSunflower[33]
Formation of adventitious rootsSorghum, finger millet[34, 35]
MetabolismGeneration of antioxidantsPigeon pea[36]
Change to anaerobic metabolismFinger millet[37]
Plant heightFast growthMung bean[38]

HeatGrowthGrowth and nutrient uptakeChickpea, Pearl millet[39, 40]
YieldUnknownCowpea[41]

Cold and frostGrowthEarly flowering, protracted rosetteFaba bean[42]
Early floweringSorghum[43]