Scientifica The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Perceptions and Practices regarding Breastfeeding among Postnatal Women at a District Tertiary Referral Government Hospital in Southern India Thu, 20 Oct 2016 13:32:44 +0000 Background. Breastfeeding is the optimal method for achieving a normal growth and development of the baby. This study aimed to study mothers’ perceptions and practices regarding breastfeeding in Mangalore, India. Methodology. A cross-sectional study of 188 mothers was conducted using a structured proforma. Results. Importance of breast feeding was known to most mothers. While initiation of breast feeding within one hour of birth was done by majority of mothers, few had discarded colostrum and adopted prelacteal feeding. Mothers opined that breast feeding is healthy for their babies (96.3%) and easier than infant feeding (79.8%), does not affect marital relationship (51%), and decreases family expenditure (61.1%). However, there were poor perceptions regarding the advantages of breast milk with respect to nutritive value, immune effect, and disease protection. Few respondents reported discontinuation of breastfeeding in previous child if the baby had fever/cold (6%) or diarrhea (18%) and vomiting (26%). There was a statistically significant association between mother’s educational level and perceived importance of breastfeeding and also between the mode of delivery and initiation of breast feeding (). Conclusion. Importance of breast feeding was known to most mothers. Few perceptions related to breast milk and feeding along with myths and disbeliefs should be rectified by health education. Sowmini P. Kamath, Dikshy Garg, Mohd. Khursheed Khan, Animesh Jain, and B. Shantharam Baliga Copyright © 2016 Sowmini P. Kamath et al. All rights reserved. A Review on Recent Developments for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy Thu, 29 Sep 2016 16:17:22 +0000 Diabetic retinopathy is caused by the retinal micro vasculature which may be formed as a result of diabetes mellitus. Blindness may appear as a result of unchecked and severe cases of diabetic retinopathy. Manual inspection of fundus images to check morphological changes in microaneurysms, exudates, blood vessels, hemorrhages, and macula is a very time-consuming and tedious work. It can be made easily with the help of computer-aided system and intervariability for the observer. In this paper, several techniques for detecting microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are discussed for ultimate detection of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood vessels detection techniques are also discussed for the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the paper elaborates a discussion on the experiments accessed by authors for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. This work will be helpful for the researchers and technical persons who want to utilize the ongoing research in this area. Javeria Amin, Muhammad Sharif, and Mussarat Yasmin Copyright © 2016 Javeria Amin et al. All rights reserved. Low Density of Top Predators (Seabirds and Marine Mammals) in the High Arctic Pack Ice Thu, 29 Sep 2016 12:12:22 +0000 The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross’s gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. Five pinniped species were represented by a total of 55 individuals and the polar bear Ursus maritimus was represented by 12 individuals. Four main geographical zones were identified: from Tromsø to the outer marginal ice zone (OMIZ), the Arctic pack ice (close pack ice, CPI), the end of Lomonosov Ridge off Siberia, and the route off Siberia and northern Norway. Important differences were detected between zones, both in species composition and in individual abundance. Low numbers of species and high proportion of individuals for some of them can be considered to reflect very low biodiversity. Numbers encountered in zones 2 to 4 were very low in comparison with other European Arctic seas. The observed differences showed strong patterns. Claude R. Joiris, Karin Boos, Diederik D’Hert, and Dominik A. Nachtsheim Copyright © 2016 Claude R. Joiris et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube in Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Poisoned Patients Mon, 29 Aug 2016 16:41:03 +0000 Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT) is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients) in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT) in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) group who were intubated by Evac ETT () and (2) control group who were intubated by C-ETT (). Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5%) were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8%) patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9%) patients in the control group (). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10%) and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%). The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (). Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients. Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Mashayekhian, Mitra Rahimi, and Abbas Aghabiklooei Copyright © 2016 Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Input Levels on Soil -N Content and Vertical Distribution in Greenhouse Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:26:36 +0000 The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between irrigation and fertilizer treatments on soil -N content and vertical distribution under drip fertigation in greenhouse tomatoes. Randomized block design with three replications and the treatments consisting of three levels of irrigation and three levels of N fertilizer were used. Three irrigation levels were W1 (100%), W2 (75%), and W3 (50%) and fertilizer levels were F1 (N240–P2O5120–K2O150 kg hm−2), F2 (N180–P2O590–K2O112.5 kg hm−2), and F3 (N120–P2O560–K2O75 kg hm−2). The result demonstrates that dynamics of soil -N and its response to drip fertigation and levels of N moved toward the fore soil moist, and the average soil -N content with W3 treatment was 1.23 times higher than that of the W1 treatment in 0–60 cm at 43 days after transplanting. The negative correlation between N use efficiency and levels of fertilizer N and the N recovery efficiency was increased with increases of N fertilizer application. The fertilizer nitrogen rate greatly significantly influenced soil -N content. Avoiding N leaching through controlled matching N fertilizer application and controlled irrigation to tomato N demand is the key to maintain crop yield and improve N use efficiency. Xiukang Wang and Yingying Xing Copyright © 2016 Xiukang Wang and Yingying Xing. All rights reserved. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:16:28 +0000 Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and Ang-(1-7) may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7) was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7) and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7)-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7) stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide) did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7) on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7) was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7) enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects. N. L. Rukavina Mikusic, N. M. Kouyoumdzian, E. Rouvier, M. M. Gironacci, J. E. Toblli, B. E. Fernández, and M. R. Choi Copyright © 2016 N. L. Rukavina Mikusic et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the MANIPAL-FLEX Study Sun, 14 Aug 2016 12:37:11 +0000 Objective. The objective of the MANIPAL-FLEX study was to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation, in de novo coronary artery disease, using clinical and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) follow-ups. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 189 patients with de novo coronary artery disease who were treated with the Supraflex SES. Of 189 patients enrolled, the first 61 consecutive patients who consented to a 9-month follow-up evaluation by QCA, irrespective of presence of symptoms, were to be followed up with angiography at 9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was target lesion failure (TLF), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization during 12-month follow-up after the index procedure. Results. The mean age of the study population was years, with 51.3% (97/189) of hypertensive patients. Total of 66 lesions, analyzed by offline QCA, showed good scaffolding of the target vessel with in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months of  mm. The observed TLF at 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up were 2 (1.1%), 6 (3.2%), and 10 (5.3%), respectively. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent. Ranjan Shetty, Jayesh Prajapati, Umesh Pai, and Kiran Shetty Copyright © 2016 Ranjan Shetty et al. All rights reserved. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Microcapsules Containing Pravastatin Sodium Using Rats Tue, 09 Aug 2016 13:18:36 +0000 Pravastatin Sodium has a cholesterol lowering agent. It has shorter half-life and undergoes first-pass metabolism. Frequent dose is required in case of conventional dosage form. The purpose of the study is to formulate and evaluate microcapsules containing Pravastatin Sodium by complex with cholestyramine resins coated with Eudragit RLPO and Eudragit RSPO polymers for achieving control release. Complexation of drug on resin was carried out by batch method. Microencapsulation was carried out by nonaqueous solvent evaporation method. Pharmacokinetic studies were done by using rats. The intermediate stability studies were carried out on the most satisfactory formulations. FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and DSC spectra of drug, drug-resinates, and polymers revealed no chemical interaction. The % DEE and % yield were observed for formulations of f1 to f7 that were varied from 97.1 ± 0.8 to 98.9 ± 0.5% and 95.0 ± 3.25 to 98.8 ± 7.1%, respectively. Most satisfactory formulation, f6, showed drug release up to 72.6%. No changes in % DEE and % CDR were observed after stability studies. Microcapsules of f6 formulation achieved best performance regarding in vitro drug release and from pharmacokinetic evaluation mean residence time was found to be 6.3 h, thus indicated, Pravastatin Sodium microcapsules were released and absorbed slowly over a prolonged period of time. Venkatesh Dinnekere Puttegowda, Roopa Karki, Divakar Goli, Sajal kumar Jha, and Manjunatha Panduranga Mudagal Copyright © 2016 Venkatesh Dinnekere Puttegowda et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Mon, 08 Aug 2016 05:49:02 +0000 The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. Prashanth Prabhu Copyright © 2016 Prashanth Prabhu. All rights reserved. Static Anthropometric Characteristics of Bangladeshi Vehicle Driver: A Case Study Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:54:59 +0000 Background. Inappropriate design of sitting furniture and working equipment causes the serious musculoskeletal injuries and various pains as well as reducing working efficiency. Uncomfortable sitting posture in prolonged driving in Bangladesh is an issue to be solved immediately. Therefore, anthropometric databank of user population is significantly essential for the suitable dimensional design for avoiding these remarkable problems. Methods. This study analyses the anthropometric data of the Bangladeshi male vehicle driver aged between 30 and 60 years. A total of 210 Bangladeshi healthy drivers are considered for 15 anthropometric measurements and compared with the similar anthropometrics of other nationalities. Results. The mean stature and sitting height erect of Bangladeshi driver are 1645 mm and 843 mm, respectively. The mean of body mass index (BMI) of the drivers is 26.09 kg/m2, which indicates that the drivers are overweight. The mean stature of Bangladeshi driver is 17 mm shorter than the driver of Korea and 115 mm shorter than the driver of Iran. Conclusion. There are substantial differences between the body dimensions of Bangladeshi driver and similar dimensions of other countries. In comparison, Bangladeshi driver is found to be the shortest compared with the sample of other nationalities. P. K. Halder and E. Sarker Copyright © 2016 P. K. Halder and E. Sarker. All rights reserved. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension Sun, 07 Aug 2016 07:17:22 +0000 To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. Quan-Li Li, Chris Ying Cao, Qiang-Jian Xu, Xiao-Hua Xu, and Jia-Li Yin Copyright © 2016 Quan-Li Li et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Behavior of Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma in Young Patients: A Single Center Experience Tue, 02 Aug 2016 14:15:57 +0000 Background. There is not enough evidence about clinical behavior of bladder cancer in younger patients. Objective. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma patients under the age of 40 years. Methods. Medical records of patients listed in our cancer database were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 40 patients who were initially diagnosed with bladder urothelial carcinoma at the age less than 40 years were included in the study. Patients’ records were reviewed for recurrence and progression rates, demographic data, medical history, and treatment modalities. Results. Pathological results revealed 33 (82.5%) Ta low-grade, 6 (15%) T1 high-grade, and 1 (2.5%) T2 high-grade urothelial carcinomas. Recurrence was detected in 14/39 (35.9%) patients but progression was not observed in any patients. The mean age of recurrent patients was significantly higher than nonrecurrent patients (34.8 versus 28.5 years; ). Besides, recurrence was detected in only 1 patient with the age under 30 years (6.2%) and 13 patients (54.1%) between 30 and 40 years old, respectively (). Conclusion. Bladder urothelial carcinoma diagnosed at young age tends to be a low pathologic stage, with relatively low rate of recurrence and progression. Volkan Sen, Ozan Bozkurt, Omer Demir, Ahmet Adil Esen, Ugur Mungan, Guven Aslan, Aykut Kefi, and Ilhan Celebi Copyright © 2016 Volkan Sen et al. All rights reserved. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya Mon, 01 Aug 2016 12:33:14 +0000 The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. Chandra Shekher Sanwal, Raj Kumar, and S. D. Bhardwaj Copyright © 2016 Chandra Shekher Sanwal et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Modified Cartilage Shield Tympanoplasty with Tympanoplasty Using Temporalis Fascia Only: Retrospective Analysis of 142 Cases Sun, 31 Jul 2016 07:27:10 +0000 The current study compares outcomes of modified cartilage shield tympanoplasty (CST) with temporalis fascia tympanoplasty in type I procedures in Indian patients. Graft uptake rates are better with the CST technique and hearing results are almost equivalent with both techniques except at 8000 Hz where improvement in hearing was found better with the use of temporalis fascia alone. The CST technique used in the study is unique. Sohil Vadiya, Vibhuti Parikh, Saumya Shah, Parita Pandya, and Anuj Kansara Copyright © 2016 Sohil Vadiya et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of G Protein-Coupled Receptors with SVM-Prot Features and Random Forest Wed, 27 Jul 2016 12:18:06 +0000 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest receptor superfamily. In this paper, we try to employ physical-chemical properties, which come from SVM-Prot, to represent GPCR. Random Forest was utilized as classifier for distinguishing them from other protein sequences. MEME suite was used to detect the most significant 10 conserved motifs of human GPCRs. In the testing datasets, the average accuracy was 91.61%, and the average AUC was 0.9282. MEME discovery analysis showed that many motifs aggregated in the seven hydrophobic helices transmembrane regions adapt to the characteristic of GPCRs. All of the above indicate that our machine-learning method can successfully distinguish GPCRs from non-GPCRs. Zhijun Liao, Ying Ju, and Quan Zou Copyright © 2016 Zhijun Liao et al. All rights reserved. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:29:59 +0000 We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. Mary Kay Kenney and Gopal K. Singh Copyright © 2016 Mary Kay Kenney and Gopal K. Singh. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study Thu, 14 Jul 2016 14:31:02 +0000 Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad) and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding). Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa). The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa). The statistical difference between this two groups was significant ( value = 0/0038). The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = ) and without laser preparation (mean = ) were statistically significant too ( value = 0/01). Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength. Masoumeh Moslemi, Faezeh Fotouhi Ardakani, Fatemeh Javadi, Zahra Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra Shadkar, and Mohammad Saeid Shadkar Copyright © 2016 Masoumeh Moslemi et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates Mon, 04 Jul 2016 08:40:19 +0000 The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (, ), width (, ), and biomass (, ) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. Abesh Chakraborty, Atanu Naskar, Panchanan Parui, and Dhriti Banerjee Copyright © 2016 Abesh Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin Thu, 30 Jun 2016 13:27:09 +0000 Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. Raphiou Maliki, Brice Sinsin, Anne Floquet, Denis Cornet, Eric Malezieux, and Philippe Vernier Copyright © 2016 Raphiou Maliki et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice Thu, 30 Jun 2016 11:29:55 +0000 Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different () from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. A. Y. Kabiru, G. F. Ibikunle, D. A. Innalegwu, B. M. Bola, and F. M. Madaki Copyright © 2016 A. Y. Kabiru et al. All rights reserved. The Importance of Risk and Subgroup Analysis of Nonparticipants in a Geriatric Intervention Study Thu, 30 Jun 2016 11:28:42 +0000 Background. A major concern in intervention studies is the generalizability of the findings due to refusal of intended participants to actually take part. In studies including ill older people the number of those declining to participate may be large and the concern is therefore relevant. Objectives. To compare patients characteristics, rates of acute readmission, and mortality after one and six months among older persons who agreed and those who declined to participate in a randomized controlled trial and to describe subgroups of nonparticipants. Design. Comparative study based on a randomized controlled trial. Setting. University hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. Participants. Patients ≥70 years discharged home after a short Emergency Department stay. 399 were requested to participate; 271 consented, whereas 128 refused. Results. Refusers were more likely to be readmitted () or die (). The largest subgroup of refusers described as “too ill” had the highest risk of readmission (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.61–5.47, ) and of mortality within six months (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.64–7.49, ). However, this seems not to have affected the results of our randomized study. Conclusion. We recommend that intervention studies among older people or other fragile patient groups include analysis of relevant risk and subgroup analyses of refusers. Elizabeth Rosted, Ingrid Poulsen, Carsten Hendriksen, and Lis Wagner Copyright © 2016 Elizabeth Rosted et al. All rights reserved. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination Wed, 29 Jun 2016 11:25:10 +0000 The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany, Lina Al-Areqi, Abulatif Mujally, Fawzya Alkarshy, Arwa Nasser, and Aisha O. Jumaan Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany et al. All rights reserved. A Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Dentinal Cracks at Different Instrumentation Lengths by Using Different Rotary Files (ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM): An Ex Vivo Study Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:17:01 +0000 Introduction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dentinal cracks after root canal preparation with rotary files: Gates Glidden, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM at different instrumentation lengths. Methodology. Sixty-five mandibular premolars were mounted in the acrylic tube with simulated periodontal ligaments and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with different rotary files, namely, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM, to the major apical foramen (AF), short AF, and beyond AF. The root apex was stained with 1% methylene blue dye and digital images of apical surface of every tooth were taken and development of dentinal defects was determined by using stereomicroscope. Multinomial logistic regression test was performed to identify influencing factors. Results. Instrumentation with rotary files terminated 2 mm short AF and did not cause any cracks. Significantly less cracks were seen when instrumentation with rotary files terminated 1 mm short apical foramen when compared with the instrumentation terminated at or beyond apical foramen (). Conclusion. ProTaper Universal rotary files caused more dentinal cracks than ProTaper Next and HyFlex CM. Instrumentation short AF reduced the risk of dentinal defects. Fauzia Ashraf, Pushpa Shankarappa, Abhinav Misra, Asheesh Sawhney, Nandamuri Sridevi, and Anu Singh Copyright © 2016 Fauzia Ashraf et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Perception of Job Performance among Nurses in North West of Iran Tue, 28 Jun 2016 15:43:59 +0000 Emotional intelligence skills help nurses to cope with the emotional demands of healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and perception of job performance among nurses. Using a correlational descriptive design with stratified random sampling, 338 registered nurses from teaching hospitals in North West of Iran were surveyed. Emotional intelligence and perception of job performance were measured using validated self-report measures. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential methods using SPSS/13. The mean of nurses’ emotional intelligence and their perception of job performance was, respectively, and . There was no significant relationship between nurses’ emotional intelligence and their perception of job performance. Although there was a significant relationship between intrapersonal subscale of emotional intelligence and job performance, there was none with other subscales. In order to get rid of the physical and psychological effects of stressful work in wards, it seems that nurses just do routine activities and refuse working closely with the patients. It seems that fitting the patient to nurse ratio, dividing work between nurses, and supporting each other are necessary. Maryam Vahidi, Hossein Namdar Areshtanab, and Mohammad Arshadi Bostanabad Copyright © 2016 Maryam Vahidi et al. All rights reserved. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review Tue, 28 Jun 2016 11:15:43 +0000 Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya, Satya Ranjan Misra, and Mohsina Hussain Copyright © 2016 Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya et al. All rights reserved. Sickled Erythrocytes Reversal and Membrane Stabilizing Compounds in Telfairia occidentalis Tue, 28 Jun 2016 11:04:20 +0000 Background and Purpose. Traditional management of sickle cell disease (SCD) is ubiquitous in Africa. In south-eastern Nigeria, Telfairia occidentalis (T. occidentalis) is strongly recommended for consumption by SCD patients, owing to its presumed therapeutic effect. This study investigates the antisickling and membrane regenerative potentials of T. occidentalis in sickled erythrocytes. Experimental Approach. Sickled erythrocytes obtained from SCD patients were treated with sodium metabisulphite (2%) to induce further sickling. Heat and hypotonic-induced lyses of red blood cells’ membranes were also carried out. The RBCs were treated with varying concentration (10.0, 1.0, and 0.1 mg mL−1 and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg mL−1, resp.) of T. occidentalis extracts as treatment regimen for in vitro antisickling and membrane stabilizing assays. Extract with peak activity was purified and reused in antisickling assay. Key Results. The antisickling activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves, seeds, and stem of Telfairia occidentalis at 10.0, 1.0, and 0.1 mg mL−1 revealed that the aqueous leaves extract (10 mg mL−1) exhibited the highest antisickling activity (64.03%) which was significantly () higher than that of the stem (47.30%) and seeds (37.50%). Partially purified fractions recorded improved antisickling effect (peak activity of 70%). Characterization (using GC-MS) of the most active fraction revealed some bioactive compounds. In the membrane stabilizing assay, methanolic and aqueous stem extracts of T. occidentalis showed the highest effect of 71.85% and 61.29%, respectively. Conclusions and Implications. The results provide scientific evidence for ethnopharmacological use of T. occidentalis in the management of SCD. Samuel Atabo, Ismaila Alhaji Umar, Dorcas Bolanle James, and Aisha Indo Mamman Copyright © 2016 Samuel Atabo et al. All rights reserved. Quantification of Rifaximin in Tablets by Spectrophotometric Method Ecofriendly in Ultraviolet Region Mon, 27 Jun 2016 10:02:03 +0000 Rifaximin is an oral nonabsorbable antibiotic that acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract with minimal systemic adverse effects. It does not have spectrophotometric method ecofriendly in the ultraviolet region described in official compendiums and literature. The analytical techniques for determination of rifaximin reported in the literature require large amount of time to release results and are significantly onerous. Furthermore, they use toxic reagents both for the operator and environment and, therefore, cannot be considered environmentally friendly analytical techniques. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an ecofriendly spectrophotometric method in the ultraviolet region to quantify rifaximin in tablets. The method was validated, showing linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. It was linear over the concentration range of 10–30 mg L−1 with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9999 and limits of detection and quantification of 1.39 and 4.22 mg L−1, respectively. The validated method is useful and applied for the routine quality control of rifaximin, since it is simple with inexpensive conditions and fast in the release of results, optimizes analysts and equipment, and uses environmentally friendly solvents, being considered a green method, which does not prejudice either the operator or the environment. Ana Carolina Kogawa and Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado Copyright © 2016 Ana Carolina Kogawa and Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado. All rights reserved. Missed Opportunities for Nutritional Rehabilitation in Children Admitted to Surgical Wards Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:18:12 +0000 Background. Malnutrition in children has serious health and economic consequences. We studied documentation of malnutrition, actual prevalence, and treatment given in children admitted to surgical wards. Methods. Retrospective study of 154 patients aged <5 yrs admitted to general surgical, orthopedic, and otorhinolaryngology wards. Records were evaluated for completeness of data, way of documentation, and data quality. Descriptive analysis was done. If malnutrition was not identified and/or proper action was not taken, it was defined as a “missed opportunity.” Results. Of 154 records audited, 100 (64.94%) were males, 108 (70.13%) were from general surgery ward, and 78 (50.65%) were residing in suburban area. The mean (SD) age of the study population was 2.32 (1.16) years whereas mean (SD) duration of stay was 5.84 (6.29) days. Weight and height were mentioned in 116 (75.32%) and 8 (5.19%) records, respectively, mostly by nonsurgical personnel. Documentation and treatment of malnutrition were poor. Out of 106 apparently correct weight records, 19 (17.93%) children were severely undernourished and 30 (28.30%) were moderately undernourished whereas 20 (18.87%) children were not undernourished but required nutritional attention. Conclusion. There is poor documentation of nutritional indicators of children admitted to surgical wards. From data that was available, it is apparent that malnutrition is at high levels. “Identification” and hence management of malnutrition need more attention. Pooja Dave, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Ajay Phatak, Rajendra Desai, and Shirish Srivastava Copyright © 2016 Pooja Dave et al. All rights reserved. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:51:22 +0000 Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. Upasana Khairnar, Aman Upaganlawar, and Chandrashekhar Upasani Copyright © 2016 Upasana Khairnar et al. All rights reserved. Using an Interactive Systems Framework to Expand Telepsychology Innovations in Underserved Communities Wed, 15 Jun 2016 12:41:15 +0000 Literature indicates that the use of promising innovations in mental health care can be improved. The advancement of telepsychology is one innovation that has been utilized as a method to reduce rural health disparities and increase the number of people with access to mental health services. This paper describes a successful pilot telepsychology program implemented in a rural community to increase access to mental health services and the model’s replication and expansion into four additional communities using concepts described in an Interactive Systems Framework. The Interactive Systems Framework highlights how building local capacity specific to organizational functioning and innovations are necessary to support, deliver, and disseminate innovations within new settings. Based on the knowledge gained from this telepsychology innovation, the application of an Interactive Systems Framework and funding mechanisms are discussed. Whitney R. Garney, Carly E. McCord, Michaela V. Walsh, and Angela B. Alaniz Copyright © 2016 Whitney R. Garney et al. All rights reserved.