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Security and Communication Networks
Volume 2017, Article ID 1924618, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1924618
Research Article

Adaptive PVD Steganography Using Horizontal, Vertical, and Diagonal Edges in Six-Pixel Blocks

Department of CSE, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh 522 502, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Gandharba Swain; moc.liamg@4321niawsg

Received 29 March 2017; Revised 29 May 2017; Accepted 5 June 2017; Published 2 August 2017

Academic Editor: Ángel Martín Del Rey

Copyright © 2017 Anita Pradhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The traditional pixel value differencing (PVD) steganographical schemes are easily detected by pixel difference histogram (PDH) analysis. This problem could be addressed by adding two tricks: (i) utilizing horizontal, vertical, and diagonal edges and (ii) using adaptive quantization ranges. This paper presents an adaptive PVD technique using 6-pixel blocks. There are two variants. The proposed adaptive PVD for -pixel blocks is known as variant 1, and the proposed adaptive PVD for -pixel blocks is known as variant 2. For every block in variant 1, the four corner pixels are used to hide data bits using the middle column pixels for detecting the horizontal and diagonal edges. Similarly, for every block in variant 2, the four corner pixels are used to hide data bits using the middle row pixels for detecting the vertical and diagonal edges. The quantization ranges are adaptive and are calculated using the correlation of the two middle column/row pixels with the four corner pixels. The technique performs better as compared to the existing adaptive PVD techniques by possessing higher hiding capacity and lesser distortion. Furthermore, it has been proven that the PDH steganalysis and RS steganalysis cannot detect this proposed technique.