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Security and Communication Networks
Volume 2017, Article ID 7616847, 10 pages
Research Article

Quantum-to-the-Home: Achieving Gbits/s Secure Key Rates via Commercial Off-the-Shelf Telecommunication Equipment

1Centre for Distributed Computing, Networks, and Security, School of Computing, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK
2The Cyber Academy, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Rameez Asif;

Received 20 April 2017; Revised 31 May 2017; Accepted 27 June 2017; Published 6 August 2017

Academic Editor: Vincente Martin

Copyright © 2017 Rameez Asif and William J. Buchanan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


There is current significant interest in Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks, that is, end-to-end optical connectivity. Currently, it may be limited due to the presence of last-mile copper wire connections. However, in near future, it is envisaged that FTTH connections will exist, and a key offering would be the possibility of optical encryption that can best be implemented using Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). However, it is very important that the QKD infrastructure is compatible with the already existing networks for a smooth transition and integration with the classical data traffic. In this paper, we report the feasibility of using off-the-shelf telecommunication components to enable high performance Continuous Variable-Quantum Key Distribution (CV-QKD) systems that can yield secure key rates in the range of 100Mbits/s under practical operating conditions. Multilevel phase modulated signals (-PSK) are evaluated in terms of secure key rates and transmission distances. The traditional receiver is discussed, aided by the phase noise cancellation based digital signal processing module for detecting the complex quantum signals. Furthermore, we have discussed the compatibility of multiplexers and demultiplexers for wavelength division multiplexed Quantum-to-the-Home (QTTH) network and the impact of splitting ratio is analyzed. The results are thoroughly compared with the commercially available high-cost encryption modules.