Table 2: Classification of MTD transformation mechanisms.

CategoryTransformation elementClassic mechanismsCyber kill-chain stage being resisted

Single-layer transformation mechanism
Transformation mechanism to network
Endpoint information shuffleMAC address, IP address, port, protocolDYNAT (Kewley et al. 2001)
MT6D (Dunlop et al. 2011)
MOTAG (Jia et al. 2013)

Reconnaissance, delivery, command and control, actions on targets
Forwarding path migrationRouting nodes, forwarding linkRRM (Duan et al. 2013)
MANET (Lu et al. 2015)

Transformation mechanism to node
Platform environment diversityOperating system, instruction set, store address, store dataSCIT (Bangalore et al. 2006)
MEERKATS (Keromytis et al. 2012)
Readactor (Homesecu et al. 2011)

Weaponization, exploitation, installation, actions on targets
Software application heterogenousInstruction layout, code encodingNOMAD (Vikram et al. 2013)

Cross-layer transformation mechanismAPOD (Atighetchi et al. 2004)
A3 (Pal et al. 2011)
SDNA (Yackoski et al. 2011)
MCD (Wu et al. 2016)
Reconnaissance, weaponization, exploitation, installation, command and control, actions on targets