Sleep Disorders / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Effects of Acupuncture Treatment on Sleep Quality and on Emotional Measures among Individuals Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

Table 1

Objective and subjective sleep measures (means and standard deviations) after each phase of the study and analysis of the comparisons between them.

Objective and subjective sleep measuresBaseline level
Mean (SD)
Last week of acupuncture treatment
Mean (SD)
value

Total time in bed (minutes)480.98 ( 97.52) 475.39 ( 96.82)0.360.722
Sleep onset latency (minutes)26.63 ( 26.71)14.32 ( 12.81)2.210.040
Sleep percentage (%)84.20 ( 10.76)89.86 ( 7.14)2.900.010
Mean activity level20.04 ( 9.43)13.26 ( 7.63)3.200.005
Wake time after sleep onset67.43 ( 45.86)46.58 ( 32.64)2.920.009
Mean number of wake episodes7.21 ( 4.81)5.42 ( 2.31)2.260.040
Mean wake episode (minutes) 3.76 ( 1.62)2.85 ( 1.54)2.490.023
Longest wake episode (minutes)25.71 ( 19.20)18.16 ( 11.55)2.870.010
Subjective Sleep Quality (MSQ questionnaire)3.64 ( 1.15) 3.42 ( 1.09)2.1520.187
Subjective Sleep Quality (PSQI questionnaire) 0.95 (±0.53) )1.6320.119

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