Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Sleep Disorders
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 798487, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/798487
Review Article

Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA

Received 30 September 2013; Revised 10 November 2013; Accepted 23 November 2013; Published 16 February 2014

Academic Editor: Michel M. Billiard

Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Talha Khan and Rose Amy Franco. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, “The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 17, pp. 1230–1235, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Shahar, C. W. Whitney, S. Redline et al., “Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the sleep heart health study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Verbraecken and W. A. De Backer, “Upper airway mechanics,” Respiration, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Buckle, T. Millar, and M. Kryger, “The effect of short-term nasal CPAP on Cheyne-Stokes respiration in congestive heart failure,” Chest, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. T. Naughton, D. C. Benard, R. Rutherford, and T. D. Bradley, “Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on central sleep apnea and nocturnal PCO2 in heart failure,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 1598–1604, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. N. Willson, I. Wilcox, A. J. Piper et al., “Noninvasive pressure preset ventilation for the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1250–1257, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Teschler, J. Döhring, Y.-M. Wang, and M. Berthon-Jones, “Adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation: a novel treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 614–619, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. G. Johnson and D. C. Johnson, “Bilevel positive airway pressure worsens central apneas during sleep,” Chest, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 2141–2150, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. I. Morgenthaler, V. Kagramanov, V. Hanak, and P. A. Decker, “Complex sleep apnea syndrome: is it a unique clinical syndrome?” Sleep, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1203–1209, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. Marrone, A. Stallone, A. Salvaggio, F. Milone, V. Bellia, and G. Bonsignore, “Occurrence of breathing disorders during CPAP administration in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 660–666, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. S. Gilmartin, R. W. Daly, and R. J. Thomas, “Recognition and management of complex sleep-disordered breathing,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 485–493, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Dernaika, M. Tawk, S. Nazir, W. Younis, and G. T. Kinasewitz, “The significance and outcome of continuous positive airway pressure-related central sleep apnea during split-night sleep studies,” Chest, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Lehman, N. A. Antic, C. Thompson, P. G. Catcheside, J. Mercer, and R. D. McEvoy, “Central sleep apnea on commencement of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with a primary diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 462–466, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Westhoff, M. Arzt, and P. Litterst, “Prevalence and treatment of central sleep apnoea emerging after initiation of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea without evidence of heart failure,” Sleep and Breathing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Bitter, N. Westerheide, M. S. Hossain et al., “Complex sleep apnoea in congestive heart failure,” Thorax, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 402–407, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. Marrone, “Complex sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Opposite ends of the spectrum of obstructive sleep apnea?” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 488–492, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Salloum, J. A. Rowley, J. H. Mateika, S. Chowdhuri, Q. Omran, and M. S. Badr, “Increased propensity for central apnea in patients with obstructive sleep apnea effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 189–193, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. C. Gay, “Complex sleep apnea: it really is a disease,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 403–405, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Malhotra, S. Bertisch, and A. Wellman, “Complex sleep apnea: it isn't really a disease,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 406–408, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. Cassel, S. Canisius, H. F. Becker et al., “A prospective polysomnographic study on the evolution of complex sleep apnoea,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 329–337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Nakazaki, A. Noda, Y. Yasuda et al., “Continuous positive airway pressure intolerance associated with elevated nasal resistance is possible mechanism of complex sleep apnea syndrome,” Sleep and Breathing, vol. 16, pp. 747–752, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Dernaika, M. Tawk, S. Nazir, W. Younis, and G. T. Kinasewitz, “The significance and outcome of continuous positive airway pressure-related central sleep apnea during split-night sleep studies,” Chest, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. K. Brown and K. R. Casey, “Complex sleep apnea: the hedgehog and the fox,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 473–478, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Montesi, J. P. Bakker, M. MacDonald et al., Air Leak During CPAP Titration as a Risk Factor for Central Apnea. (accepted for publication), http://www.aasmnet.org/jcsm/AcceptedPapers/JC-081-13.pdf.
  25. S. Lehman, N. A. Antic, C. Thompson, P. G. Catcheside, J. Mercer, and R. D. McEvoy, “Central sleep apnea on commencement of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with a primary diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 462–466, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. I. Morgenthaler, P. C. Gay, N. Gordon, and L. K. Brown, “Adaptive servoventilation versus noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for central, mixed, and complex sleep apnea syndromes,” Sleep, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 468–475, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. S. Pusalavidyasagar, E. J. Olson, P. C. Gay, and T. I. Morgenthaler, “Treatment of complex sleep apnea syndrome: a retrospective comparative review,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 474–479, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Javaheri, J. Smith, and E. Chung, “The prevalence and natural history of complex sleep apnea,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 205–211, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. Cassel, S. Canisius, H. F. Becker et al., “A prospective polysomnographic study on the evolution of complex sleep apnoea,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 329–337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Verbraecken, “Complex sleep apnoea (sic) syndrome,” Breathe, vol. 9, no. 5, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Khan and P. Gay, “Complex sleep apnea,” PCCSU.
  32. T. J. Kuzniar, S. Patel, C. L. Nierodzik, and L. C. Smith, “Comparison of two servo ventilator devices in the treatment of complex sleep apnea,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 538–541, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Dellweg, J. Kerl, E. Hoehn, M. Wenzel, and D. Koehler, “Randomized controlled trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) versus servoventilation in patients with CPAP-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea),” Sleep, vol. 36, pp. 1163–1171, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. R. J. Thomas, R. W. Daly, and J. W. Weiss, “Low-concentration carbon dioxide is an effective adjunct to positive airway pressure in the treatment of refractory mixed central and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing,” Sleep, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. J. Thomas, “Effect of added dead space to positive airway pressure for treatment of complex sleep-disordered breathing,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 177–178, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Gilmartin, B. McGeehan, K. Vigneault et al., “Treatment of positive airway pressure treatment-associated respiratory instability with Enhanced Expiratory Rebreathing Space (EERS),” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 529–538, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus