Sleep Disorders / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review

Table 2

Validation of SAHS screening approaches (see text for details). = number of participants/recordings; AHI = Apnea-Hypopnea Index; TR = training set; TS = testing set; H = hypopnea; PPV = positive predictive value; NPV = negative predictive value; AUC = areas under ROC curve; ACC = accuracy; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient; = Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient; S = single validation set; CV = cross-validation; CSR-CSA = Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

Study sourceDatabase/ratio maleAge (mean ± std.)AHI (mean ± std.)Reference testEvent definitionAHI cut-offSensitivity (%)Specificity (%)OthersValidation

Daniels et al. [17]Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, UK21/—Retrospective clinical diagnosis10066PPV = 0.95 
NPV = 1.00
S

Lévy et al. [18]CHU de Grenoble, France301/—56 ± 1230 ± 24Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]159075PPV = 0.87 
NPV = 0.81
S

Olson et al. [19]Newcastle Sleep Disorders Center, Australia793/—Same-night Level 1 PSG582.754.2S

Magalang et al. [20]Associated Sleep Center and the Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA224/—
(TR) 
101/—
(TS1) 
191/— 
(TS2)
48.9 ± 12.3 (TR) 
51.8 ± 11.5 (TS1) 
56.0 ± 12.8 (TS2)
18.2 ± 20.0 (TR) 
20.2 ± 19.5 (TS1) 
18.2 ± 21.2 (TS2)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: discernible reduction + [4% desaturation or arousal]1590 (TR) 
— (TS1) 
— (TS2)
70 (TR) 
— (TS1) 
— (TS2)
TR/TS1/TS2

Zamarrón et al. [21]Hospital General de Galicia, Spain233/0.8056.8 ± 13.1 (OSA) 
56.1 ± 13.0 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 23.0 (OSA) 
2.2 ± 2.7 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation107889PPV = 0.89 
NPV = 0.78
S

Zamarrón et al. [22]Hospital General de Galicia, Spain300/0.7858.4 ± 12.1 (OSA) 
56.6 ± 12.8 (Non-OSA)
40.2 ± 22.4 (OSA) 
2.3 ± 2.7 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation109482PPV = 0.87 
NPV = 0.92
S

Hua and Yu [23]Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, China273/0.77 (TR) 
206/0.81 (TS)
45.8 ± 16.5 (TR) 
46.2 ± 13.4 (TS)
31.6 ± 27.1 (TR) 
44.1 ± 29.8 (TS)
Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
<50% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
5AUC = 0.96TR/TS

Morillo et al. [24]University Hospital Puerta del Mar de Cadiz, Spain37/0.78 (TR) 
78/0.74 (TS)
57.9 ± 9.8 (TR) 
58.3 ± 12.5 (TS)
32.6 ± 29.24 (TR) 
28.8 ± 28.3 (TS)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation2086.482.8AUC = 0.92 
ICC = 0.82
TR/TS

Álvarez et al. [25, 26]Hospital Clinico Universitario in Santiago de Compostela, Spain111/0.85 (OSA) 
76/0.70 (Non-OSA)
58.3 ± 12.9 (OSA) 
57.6 ± 12.9 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 19.6 (OSA) 
2.04 ± 2.36 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: reduction (no cessation) + 4% desaturation1090.182.9AUC = 0.92 
ACC = 0.87
S

Hornero et al. [27]Hospital Clinico Universitario in Santiago de Compostela, Spain111/0.85 (OSA) 
76/0.70 (Non-OSA)
58.3 ± 12.9 (OSA) 
57.6 ± 12.9 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 19.6 (OSA) 
2.04 ± 2.36 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation1082.187TR/TS (113)

del Campo et al. [28]Hospital Clinico Universitario in Santiago de Compostela, Spain111/0.85 (OSA) 
76/0.70 (Non-OSA)
58.3 ± 12.9 (OSA) 
57.6 ± 12.9 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 19.6 (OSA) 
2.03 ± 2.19 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 3% desaturation1088.382.9AUC = 0.92 
PPV = 0.88 
NPV = 0.83
S

Marcos et al. [29]Hospital Clinico Universitario in Santiago de Compostela, Spain111/0.85 (OSA) 
76/0.70 (Non-OSA)
58.3 ± 12.9 (OSA) 
57.6 ± 12.9 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 19.6 (OSA) 
2.04 ± 2.36 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation1079.197.8AUC = 0.92 
ACC = 0.87
TR/TS (113)

Victor-Marcos et al. [30]Hospital Universitario Pío del Río Hortega, Spain166/0.84 (OSA) 
48/0.67 (Non-OSA)
55 ± 13.5 (OSA) 
47.7 ± 9.76 (Non-OSA)
37.1 ± 25.8 (OSA) 
4.13 ± 2.39 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation1097.079.3AUC = 0.95 
ACC = 0.93
TR/TS (129)

Álvarez et al. [34]Hospital Universitario Pío del Rio Hortega, Spain100/0.84 (OSA) 
48/0.67 (Non-OSA)
55.2 ± 14.6 (OSA) 
48.3 ± 11.8 (Non-OSA)
40.9 ± 27.6 (OSA) 
4.1 ± 2.4 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]109285.4AUC = 0.97 
ACC = 0.90
CV (Leave-one-out)

Álvarez et al. [35]Hospital Universitario Pío del Rio Hortega, Spain160/0.84 (OSA) 
80/0.65 (Non-OSA)
54.8 ± 13.8 (OSA) 
47.2 ± 12.2 (Non-OSA)
36.6 ± 25.7 (OSA) 
3.9 ± 2.4 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM2007 
H: >50% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
1090.681.3ACC = 0.87TR/TS (144)

El-Solh et al. [36]Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA213/—Same-night Level 1 PSGH: discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]5 (OSA) 
10 (CSR-CSA)
97.7 (OSA) 
100 (CSR-CSA)
100 (OSA) 
99 (CSR-CSA)
ACC = 0.99 (OSA, CSR-CSA)CV (5 K-fold)

Marcos et al. [31]Hospital Clinico Universitario in Santiago de Compostela, Spain111/0.85 (OSA) 
76/0.70 (Non-OSA)
58.3 ± 12.9 (OSA) 
57.6 ± 12.9 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 19.6 (OSA) 
2.04 ± 2.36 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation1089.4 ± 1.681.4 ± 1.7AUC = 0.91 
ACC = 0.86
TR/TS1 (30)/TS2 (83)

Victor-Marcos et al. [32]Hospital Clinico Universitario in Santiago de Compostela, Spain111/0.85 (OSA) 
76/0.70 (Non-OSA)
58.3 ± 12.9 (OSA) 
57.6 ± 12.9 (Non-OSA)
40.1 ± 19.6 (OSA) 
2.04 ± 2.36 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturation1090.8 ± 4.279.1 ± 6.9AUC = 0.91 
ACC = 0.86
TR/TS1 (30)/TS2 (83)

Victor-Marcos et al. [33]Hospital Universitario Pío del Rio Hortega, Spain240/0.7752.3 ± 13.8 (TR) 
52.2 ± 13.7 (TS)
24.7 ± 25.2 (TR) 
26.4 ± 26.7 (TS)
Same-night Level 1 PSG1594.990.9ACC = 0.93 
ICC = 0.91
TR/TS (144)

Gutierrez-Tobal et al. [37]Hospital Universitario Pío del Rio Hortega, Spain148/0.7950.9 ± 11.723.5 ± 24.1Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >30% reduction + 4% desaturation3076.793.2ACC = 0.88TR/TS (89)

Gutiérrez-Tobal et al. [38]Hospital Universitario Pío del Rio Hortega, Spain148/0.7950.9 ± 11.723.5 ± 24.1Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >30% reduction + 4% desaturation108870.8AUC = 0.90 
ACC = 0.82
CV (Leave-one-out)

Caseiro et al. [39]Coimbra Sleep Disorders Clinic, Portugal21/0.52 (OSA) 
20/0.35 (Non-OSA)
59.9 ± 13.9 (OSA) 
40.8 ± 12 (Non-OSA)
47.4 ± 32.8 (OSA) 
2.17 ± 1.56 (Non-OSA)
Same-night Level 1 PSG58195AUC = 0.88S

Salisbury and Sun [40]Vanguard Technologies18/—
(TR1) 
16/—
(TR2)
— (TR1) 
33.2 ± 35.7 (TR2)
Retrospective clinical diagnosis (TR1) Different-night Level 1 PSG (TR2)H: >50% reduction + 5% desaturation5100 (TR1) 
85.7 (TR2)
100 (TR1) 
100 (TR2)
= 0.30S

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.