Sleep Disorders / 2015 / Article / Tab 9

Review Article

Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review

Table 9

Summary table on validation studies of commercial approaches (see text for details); = number of participants/recordings; AHI = Apnea-Hypopnea Index; L = lab; H = home; AUC = area under ROC curve; = Pearson’s correlation coefficient; = Kappa index; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient. 1Manual editing of the automatic results was allowed.

SystemDevice typeDatabase/ratio maleAge (mean ± std.)AHI (mean ± std.)Reference testEvent definitionLab/homeCut-off AHISensitivity (%)Specificity (%)OthersStudy source

Morpheus IIBrigham and Women’s Hospital, USA31/0.7144.3 ± 11.320.6 ± 23 (scorer 1) 
22.5 ± 24.5 (scorer 2)
Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >30% reduction + 4% desaturationL15AUC = 0.98Pittman et al. [105]

Somnolyzer 24x7ISIESTA database [106]51/0.8651 ± 1045 ± 31Same-night Level 1 PSGLWoertz et al. [107]

-Somnostar 4100IHospital Mutua de Terrassa, Spain28/0.7550 ± 8.8Same-night Level 1 PSGH: significant reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]L1055100ICC = 0.81Barreiro et al. [108]

Morpheus HxIIIBrigham and Women’s Hospital, USA53/0.6847.8 ± 11.315.4 ± 24Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM2007L1510092.7Amir et al. [109]

ARESIIIMurrieta Sleep Medical Center and Pomona Valley Hospital, USA284/0.6248Same-night Level 1 PSGL1097.485.6 = 0.85Westbrook et al. [110]
187/0.6646Different-night Level 1 PSGH3079.4100 = 0.77Westbrook et al. [110]
NYU Sleep Disorders Center, USA92/—Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction or discernible reduction + 4% desaturationL15951941Ayappa et al. [111]
86/—Different-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction or discernible reduction + 4% desaturationH15851911Ayappa et al. [111]
Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China132/0.7547.8 ± 9.8 (men) 
52.3 ± 12.2 (women)
41.6 ± 26.9 (men) 
32.3 ± 22.9 (women)
Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L589100AUC = 0.97 To et al. [112]

SomnocheckIIIUniversity of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany51/0.8653.4 ± 12.923.9 ± 26.2Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + 4% desaturationL108395 = 0.83Ficker et al. [113]

WristOx 3100IVHospital Aleman, Argentina154/0.7750.8 ± 14.313.8Same-night Level 1 PSGH: discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]L589.294.2AUC = 0.96Nigro et al. [114]

WatchPAT 100IVBrigham and Women’s Hospital, USA30/0.6347 ± 14.823 ± 23.9Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L2090.984.2 = 0.87Ayas et al. [115]
Technion Sleep Medicine Center, Israel102/0.7641.4 ± 15.2Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L20 = 0.88 
AUC = 0.87
Bar et al. [116]
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, USA29/0.7243.2 ± 10.831.6 ± 20.6Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L1096100 = 0.89 
ICC = 0.88 
AUC = 0.96
Pittman et al. [117]
Different-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
H1596100r = 0.72 
ICC = 0.72 
AUC = 0.97
Pittman et al. [117]
Skaraborg Sleep Study [118], Sweden98/0.5660 ± 6.725.5 ± 22.9Same-night Level 2 PSGH: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [4% desaturation or arousal]
H10r = 0.90 
AUC = 0.93
Zou et al. [119]

ApneaLinkIVPrince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China50/0.8850 ± 11.8Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L510011001AUC2 = 1.00Ng et al. [120]
59/0.4957.3 ± 12Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999L1590.994.6AUC = 0.97Erman et al. [121]
Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia95/0.6146.3 ± 12.634.1 ± 32.4Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM2007 
H: >50% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L306398r = 0.88 
AUC = 0.88
Bahammam et al. [122]
Hospital Aleman, Argentina90/0.7749.6 ± 15.1Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reductionL3088.595.3ICC = 0.88 
r = 0.89 
AUC = 0.92
Nigro et al. [123]
The University of British Columbia Hospital, Canada50/0.6448.7 ± 12.630 ± 25.8Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999L109590AUC = 0.98 
ICC = 0.96
Chen et al. [124]
102/0.7654.7 ± 13.3Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999L159288.5r = 0.95Ragette et al. [125]
131/0.7259.1 ± 14.6Different-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999H591.876.5r = 0.85Ragette et al. [125]

SomnolterIII90/0.6755.4 ± 8.7Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction or  
>30% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
L83.681.8r = 0.95Cheliout-Heraut et al. [126]

EmblettaIIISleep Center, Royal Infirmary NHS Trust, Scotland, UK39/0.8246 ± 935.4 ± 5.5Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction (on nasal pressure)L = 0.28Dingli et al. [127]
50/—50 ± 1129.2 ± 2.7Different-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction (on thoracoabdominal movement)H = 0.1Dingli et al. [127]

Embletta PDSIIIPrince of Wales Hospital, China80/0.7851.4 ± 11.921.6 ± 19.1Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >30% reduction + [4% desaturation or arousal]L158895 = 0.98Ng et al. [128]

LifeshirtIII48/0.724419.3 ± 24.6Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >30% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]L251001971AUC2 = 0.99Goodrich and Orr [129]
Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA10/0.848.8 ± 14.228.2 ± 21.1Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >25% reduction + 3% desaturationL510050 = 0.82Carter et al. [130]
Different-night Level 1 PSGH: >25% reduction + 3% desaturationH5100100 = 0.96Carter et al. [130]

BreasSC20IIIHospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Spain48/—28.2Same-night Level 3 PGH: >30% reduction + 4% desaturationH5 = 0.72Ruiz-López et al. [131]
Hospital Txagorritxu de Victoria-Gasteiz, Spain60/0.7751.6 ± 13.231 ± 27.6Same-night Level 1 PSGH: >50% reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]L2093.596.6 = 0.90 
AUC = 0.98
Núñez et al. [132]

RUSleeping RTSIVGreater Pittsburgh Clinical Sleep Laboratory, USA25/0.3642.4 ± 12.920.6 ± 26.8Same-night Level 1 PSGAASM1999L583100 = 0.73 
AUC = 0.94
Grover and Pittman [133]

Stardust IIIII62/0.6745.6 ± 18.225.3 ± 21.4Same-night Level 3 PGAASM1999 
H: >50% reduction or  
discernible reduction + [3% desaturation or arousal]
H5010092.5 = 0.33 
= 0.95
Yin et al. [134]

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