Table 2: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index components by Gender.

CharacteristicsAllFemalesMalesP value

Subjective sleep quality (n = 138)

 (i) Very good30 (21.7%)14 (25.5%)16 (19.3%)0.353
 (ii) Fairly good67 (48.6%)24 (43.6%)43 (51.8%)
 (iii) Fairly bad27 (19.6%)9 (16.4%)18 (21.7%)
 (iv) Very bad14 (10.1%)8 (14.5%)6 (7.2%)

Sleep latency (n = 138)

 (i) <15 minutes65 (47.1%)26 (47.3%)39 (47.0%)0.237
 (ii) 16-30 minutes47 (34.1%)26 (27.3%)21 (25.3%)
 (iii) 31-60 minutes28 (20.3%)8 (14.5%)20 (24.1%)
 (iv) >60 minutes9 (6.5%)6 (10.9%)3 (3.6%)

Sleep duration (n = 138)

 (i) >7 hours6 (4.3%)2 (3.6%)4 (4.8%)0.495
 (ii) 6-7 hours14 (10.1%)6 (10.9%)8 (9.6%)
 (iii) 5-6 hours36 (26.1%)18 (32.7%)18 (21.7%)
 (iv) <5 hours82 (59.4%)29 (52.7%)53 (63.9%)

Sleep efficiency (n = 137)

 (i) >85%97 (70.8%)38 (69.1%)59 (72.0%)0.584
 (ii) 75-84%19 (13.9%)6 (10.9%)13 (15.9%)
 (iii) 65-74%6 (4.4%)3 (5.5%)3 (3.7%)
 (iv) <65%15 (10.9%)8 (14.5%)7 (8.5%)

Sleep Disturbances (n = 137)

 (i) Not during the past month6 (4.4%)2 (3.7%)4 (4.8%)0.072
 (ii) Less than once a week112 (81.8%)40 (74.1%)72 (86.7%)
 (iii) Once or twice a week18 (13.1%)12 (22.2%)6 (7.2%)
 (iv) Three or more times a week1 (0.7%)0 (0.0%)1 (1.2%)

Sleep Medication (n = 138)

 (i) Not during the past month127 (92.0%)47 (85.5%)80 (96.4%)0.057
 (ii) Less than once a week10 (7.2%)7 (12.7%)3 (3.6%)
 (iii) Once or twice a week1 (0.7%)1 (1.8%)0 (0.0%)

Daytime dysfunction (n = 138)

 (i) Not a problem64 (46.4%)22 (40.0%)42 (50.6%)0.479
 (ii) Only a slight problem55 (39.9%)23 (41.8%)32 (38.6%)
 (iii) Somewhat of a problem16 (11.6%)8 (14.5%)8 (9.6%)
 (iv) A very big problem3 (2.2%)2 (3.6%)1 (1.2%)

Sleep Quality (n = 137)

 (i) Good84 (61.3%)37 (67.3%)47 (57.3%)0.241
 (ii) Poor53 (38.7%)18 (32.7%)35 (42.7%)