Table of Contents
Volume 2012, Article ID 953609, 5 pages
Research Article

Identification of Prophages and Prophage Remnants within the Genome of Avibacterium paragallinarum Bacterium

Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa

Received 10 September 2012; Revised 21 November 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012

Academic Editor: Alexei Sorokin

Copyright © 2012 Y. Roodt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bacterial whole genome sequencing has delivered an abundance of prophage sequences as a by-product and the analysis of these sequences revealed ways in which phages have affected the genome of their host bacteria in various bacterial species. The aim of this study was to identify the phage-related sequences in the draft assembly of the Avibacterium paragallinarum genome, the causative agent of infectious coryza in poultry. Whole genome assembly was not possible due to the presence of gaps and/or repeats existent on the ends of contigs. However, genome annotation revealed prophage and prophage remnant sequences present in this genome. From the results obtained, a complete Mu-like bacteriophage could be identified that was termed AvpmuC-2M. A complete sequence of HP2-like bacteriophage, named AvpC-2M-HP2, was also identified.