Table 1: Experimental models of transient global ischemia.
(a) Complete TGI models

TGI methodKey featuresSpeciesReferences

Cardiac arrest
(i) KCl injection
Epinephrine injection, defibrillation, and CPR are used for resuscitationMouse, rat and monkey [1012]
(ii) Ventricular fibrillation Can be used with CPR to study resuscitationCat, dog, pig and monkey[1316]

Aortic occlusionInhibits flow throughout the bodyRat, rabbit, cat and dog[1719]

Neck cuff/tourniquet with hypotensionInhibition of blood flow to the headRat, cat, dog and monkey [2024]

Extracranial artery occlusion
(i) Innominate and subclavian arteriesInhibition of blood flow to the headCat[25, 26]
(ii) Brachiocephalic and subclavian near aortic originMonkey[27]

(b) Incomplete TGI models

TGI methodKey featuresSpeciesReferences

Intracranial hypertension
(i) Fluid infusion in cerebral cistern A brain compression injuryRabbit, cat, dog and monkey[2830]
(ii) Balloon inflationRat, cat, dog and monkey[3134]

Extracranial artery occlusionImmediate ischemia and reperfusion allows possibility of permanent occlusion
Bilateral common carotid (2-VO)
(i) Without hypotensionCreates mild-to-moderate injuryMouse, rat, gerbil, sheep and monkey[3539]
(ii) With hypotensionRat, rabbit, cat and monkey[4042]
Bilateral common carotid + vertebral arteries (4-VO)Creates severe injuryRat, rabbit, cat, dog and monkey[4348]