Table 3: Increased medical care costs of stroke associated with depression. Recent peer-reviewed publications.

First author and yearCountryType of studyParticipantsResultsConclusions

Bhattarai et al., [35] 2012UKPopulation-based cohort299,912 participants, ages 30 to 100 years14% of male and 26% of female stroke patients with single morbidity had comorbid depression; patients with concurrent diabetes, CHD, and stroke had a very high prevalence of depression (men 23% and women 49%)Compared to those with no morbidity, depression was associated with higher rates of healthcare utilization and increased costs at any level of morbidity.

Sicras et al., [36] 2008SpainCross-sectional, retrospective2,266 stroke patientsFemales (OR 2.1), obesity (OR 1.1), and neuropathy (OR 2.2) were significantly associated with depressive disorder in stroke patientsAdjusted total costs of depressive disorder were higher in most components, euro 2, −37.55 versus euro 1,498.24 ( ). Medication drugs accounted for 73.4% of the total costs.

Jia et al., [29] 2006USANational cohort 5,825 Department of Veterans Affairs patients with stroke41% of the sample had poststroke depressionAfter adjusting for patient demographic and clinical factors, patients with stroke and poststroke depression had significantly , more hospitalization, outpatient visits, and longer length of stays, 12 months after stroke compared with patients with stroke but no poststroke depression