Stroke Research and Treatment / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Rehabilitation Outcomes

Table 2

Select studies reporting FIM admission, discharge, gain, and efficiency scores.

Study ref. no. FIM admissionFIM dischargeFIM gainFIM efficiencyFollow-up

Moorthy et al., 2004 [16]Blacks: 7.1 
White: 8.9 
Hispanic: 10.1

Bhandari et al., 2005 [17]Blacks: 57.24 
Whites: 58.26 (ref)  
Hispanics: 57.73 
Asian Americans: 53.56 
Others: 51.48 
( )
FIM gain is 1.9 points lower for Blacks than Whites ( )
Three months
Blacks 1.5 points > 
Whites ( ); Asians 6.3 points >Whites ( )

Keng et al., 2005 [19]Black: 18.9 
White: 28.4 
Hispanic: 31.4 
( )

Chiou-Tan et al., 2006 [20]Blacks: 68.89 
Whites: 66.50 
Hispanics: 58.89 
( )
Blacks: 90.42 
Whites: 88.20 
Hispanics: 85.37 
( )
Blacks: 21.53 
Whites: 21.70 
Hispanics: 26.78 
( )
Blacks: 1.43 
Whites: 1.20 
Hispanics: 1.70 
( )

Ottenbacher et al., 2008 [22]Blacks: 58.01 
Whites: 58.82 (ref) 
Hispanics: 55.82 
Others: 57.06 
( )
Blacks: 80.23
Whites: 81.54 (ref)
Hispanics: 79.43
Others: 81.77
( )
Blacks: 1.53 
Whites: 1.61 (ref) 
Hispanics: 1.57 
Other: 1.59 
( )

Hinojosa et al., 2009 [23]Motor FIM:  
Blacks: 80.8 
Whites: 76.1 
Puerto Rican: 70.5
12 months 
Blacks: 86.2 
Whites: 81.1 
Puerto Rican: 76.7

Horn et al. 2010 [24]Moderate:  
Blacks: 73.5 
Whites: 71.9 
( )
Severe:
Blacks: 49.0 
Whites: 43.4 
( )
Moderate: 
Blacks: 98.4 
Whites: 98.8 
( )
Severe: 
Blacks: 77.3 
Whites: 75.7 
( )
Moderate: 
Blacks: 21.8 
Whites: 23.0 
( )   
Severe:   
Blacks: 28.1 
Whites: 32.2 
( )

Liu et al.,
2010 [26]
Blacks: 46.9
North American natives: 51.0

Putman et al., 2010 [27]Blacks: 63
Whites: 58
( )
Blacks: 89.1 
Whites: 88.0
Lower motor FIM increase ( ) and cognitive FIM increase ( ) among Blacks

Rabadi et al., 2012 [30]Blacks: 62.5 
Whites: 59.6 
Hispanics: 58.6 
Asians: 60.8 
( )
Blacks: 19.2 
Whites: 17.8 
Hispanics: 20.4 
Asians: 20.8 
( )

Berges et al., 2012 [31]Blacks: 58.1 
Whites: 54.4 
Hispanics: 55.4 
( ) 
Unadjusted
Blacks: 82.9 
Whites: 78.8 
Hispanics: 80.3 
( ) 
Unadjusted
Three months  
Blacks: 101.9 
Whites: 102.3 
Hispanics: 92.0 
( ) 

12 months
Blacks: 105.0 
Whites: 105.9 
Hispanics: 98.7 
( )