Table of Contents
SRX Neuroscience
Volume 2010, Article ID 967027, 9 pages
Research Article

Tactile, Visual, and Bimodal P300s: Could Bimodal P300s Boost BCI Performance?

1TNO Human Factors, 3769ZG Soesterberg, The Netherlands
2Laboratory of Neuroelectrical Imaging, Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, 00142 Rome, Italy
3Department of Electronic Engineering, Tor Vergata University, 00133 Rome, Italy

Received 23 February 2010; Revised 6 May 2010; Accepted 19 May 2010

Copyright © 2010 Anne-Marie Brouwer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The P300 is a positive peak in EEG occurring after presentation of a target stimulus. For brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), eliciting P300s by tactile stimuli would have specific advantages; the display can be hidden under clothes and keeps the user's gaze free. In addition, robust classification is especially important for BCIs. This motivated us to investigate P300s in response to tactile and visual stimuli unimodally and bimodally. Tactile stimuli were delivered by tactors around the participant's waist. Visual stimuli were flashed circles on a monitor, schematically representing the tactors. Participants attended to the vibrations and/or flashes of a ‘‘target’’ presented in a stream of standards. The P300 amplitude for the different modalities was comparable in size and depended on electrode location. Classification accuracy was highest in the bimodal condition. We conclude that bimodal stimuli could enhance classification results within a BCI context compared to unimodal presentations.