Research Article | Open Access
Bromide Tolerance in Plants: A Case Study on Halophytes of Indian Coast
Many industrial effluents contain occasionally various toxic elements. Many a time, bromide forms a constituent of the effluents especially originating from coastal regions. Plant materials have been effectively employed as tools to remediate this situation. Some halophytes are the best choice for reducing the toxic levels from affected salanised soils. This paper deals with the bromide uptake and its accumulation effect on the growth of Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda nudiflora, and Salvadora persica, the common halophyts of Indian coast. The species were grown with NaBr solution along with other essential nutrients. The growth in S. brachiata, S. nudiflora, and S. persica was more or less same except for some apparent morphological differences in NaBr grown plants as compared to that in NaCl-fed plants. The bromide present in various parts of these plants was determined by simple and eco-friendly techniques for the first time. A reliable spectrophotometric method was developed and employed to estimate the bromide composition in all plant extracts. The bromide levels were about 0.086–0.2 g in the root, 0.175–0.443 g in stem and 0.287–0.432 g in leaves per g of dry plant material and at higher levels it affected the photosynthetic activity. Cultivation of these plants for reclamation of bromide affected soils has been advocated as an alternative.
- D. Pasternak and A. Nerd, “Research and utilization of halophytes in Israel,” in Halophytes and Biosaline Agriculture, L. Malcolm and A. Hamdy, Eds., pp. 325–348, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
- H. Lieth, M. Moschenko, M. Lohmann, H.-W. Koyro, and A. Hamdy, Halophyte Uses in Different Climates. I. Ecological and Ecophysiological Studies, Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1999.
- T. J. Flowers, “Improving crop salt tolerance,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 55, no. 396, pp. 307–319, 2004.
- S. D. Cunningham, J. R. Shann, D. E. Crowley, and T. A. Anderson, “Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil,” ACS Symposium Series, vol. 664, pp. 2–17, 1997.
- R. S. Boyd and S. N. Martens, “The significance of metal hyperaccumulation for biotic interactions,” Chemoecology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1998.
- C. S. Cobbett, “Phytochelatins and their roles in heavy metal detoxification,” Plant Physiology, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 825–832, 2000.
- R. B. Meagher, C. L. Rugh, M. K. Kandasamy, G. Gragson, and N. J. Wang, “Engineered phytoremediation of mercury pollution in soil and water using bacterial genes,” in Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water, N. Terry and G. Banuelos, Eds., chapter 11, pp. 203–221, Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2000.
- E. Meers, P. Vervaeke, F. M. G. Tack, N. Lust, and M. G. Verloo, “Phytoextraction of heavy metals from dredged sediments using intensive cultures of the willow Salix viminalis: field trial setup,” in Proceedings of the 4th WG2 Workshop, pp. 90–93, Bordeaux, France, 2002, COST Action 837.
- C. L. Rugh, S. P. Bizily, and R. B. Meagher, “Phytoremediation of environmental mercury pollution,” in Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals Using Plants to Clean-Up the Environment, B. Ensley and I. Raskin, Eds., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
- D. E. Salt, R. D. Smith, and I. Raskin, “Phytoremediation,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 49, pp. 643–668, 1998.
- M. P. Reddy, S. Sanish, and E. R. R. Iyengar, “Photosynthetic studies and compartmentation of ions in different tissues of Salicornia brachiata,” Photosynthetica, vol. 26, pp. 273–279, 1992.
- S. Cherian, M. P. Reddy, and J. B. Pandya, “Studies on salt tolerance in Avicennia marina (forstk vierah): effect of NaCl salinity on growth, ion accumulation and enzyme activity,” Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 4, pp. 266–270, 1999.
- S. Cherian and M. P. Reddy, “Salt tolerance in the Halophyte Suaeda nudiflora moq: effect of NaCl on growth, ion accumulation and oxidative enzymes,” Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 5, pp. 32–37, 2000.
- A. Maggio, M. P. Reddy, and R. J. Joly, “Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in the halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2000.
- G. G. Rao, A. K. Nayak, A. R. Chinchmalatpure, A. Nath, and V. R. Babu, “Growth and yield of Salvadora persica. A facultative halophytes grown on saline black soil (Vertic Haplustept),” Arid Land Research and Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 2004.
- A. Debez, K. Ben Hamed, C. Grignon, and C. Abdelly, “Salinity effects on germination, growth, and seed production of the halophyte Cakile maritima,” Plant and Soil, vol. 262, no. 1-2, pp. 179–189, 2004.
- P. K. Ghosh, M. P. Reddy, J. B. Pandya et al., “Preparation of nutritious salt of plant origin,” 2005, US patent no. 6,929,809.
- E. P. Glenn and J. W. O'Leary, “Relationship between salt accumulation and water content of dicotyledonous halophytes,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 7, pp. 253–261, 1984.
- S. Adimurthy, V. R. K. S. Susarla, M. P. Reddy, and G. Ramachandraiah, “Spectrophotometric estimation of bromide ion in excess chloride media,” Talanta, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 891–896, 2005.
- S. S. Vaghela, A. D. Jethva, B. B. Mehta, S. P. Dave, S. Adimurthy, and G. Ramachandraiah, “Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 2848–2855, 2005.
- P. L. Kapur, M. R. Verma, and B. D. Khosla, “Estimation of bromides in the presence of other halides,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 157–158, 1942.
- G. Hunter and A. A. Goldsprink, “The micro determination of bromide in presence of chloride,” The Analyst, vol. 79, no. 941, pp. 467–475, 1954.
- H. H. Willard and A. H. A. Heyn, “Volumetric determination of bromide in brines,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 321–322, 1943.
- G. Chiu and R. D. Eubanks, “Spectrophotometric determination of bromide,” Mikrochimica Acta, vol. 98, no. 4–6, pp. 145–148, 1989.
- APHA (American Public Health Association), Standard Methods for the Estimation of Water and Wastewater, Part 405, Washington, DC, USA, 1985.
- M. Soulard, F. Bloc, and A. Hatterer, “Diagrams of existence of chloramines and bromamines in aqueous solution,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, no. 12, pp. 2300–2310, 1981.
- T. X. Wang, M. D. Kelley, J. N. Cooper, R. C. Beckwith, and D. W. Margerum, “Equilibrium, kinetic, and UV-spectral characteristics of aqueous bromine chloride, bromine, and chlorine species,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 33, no. 25, pp. 5872–5878, 1994.
- L. Raphael, in Bromine Compounds Chemistry and Applications, D. Price, B. Iddon, and B. J. Wakefield, Eds., pp. 369–384, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
- ACC (Aldrich Chemical Company), “Material safety data sheet for basic fuchsin,” Milwaukee, Wis, USA, 1987.
- D. R. Jones, “Difficulties with the chloramine-T-Phenol Red method for bromide determination,” Talanta, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1243–1247, 1989.
- H. M. Dave, S. K. Naiya, N. N. Sharma, and K. Seshadri, “Determination of iodine in marine algae,” Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, vol. 1, pp. 221–222, 1973.
- O. P. Mairh, B. K. Ramavat, A. Tewari, R. M. Oza, and H. V. Joshi, “Seasonal variation, bioaccumulation and prevention of loss of iodine in seaweeds,” Phytochemistry, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 3307–3310, 1989.
Copyright © 2010 Mallampati S. Reddy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.