SRX Ecology

SRX Ecology / 2010 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2010 |Article ID 650678 |

Mallampati S. Reddy, Manish P. Joshi, Sunil P. Dave, Subbarayappa Adimurthy, Venkataramakrishna S. Susarla, Aditya S. Mehta, Peddi V. Subba Rao, Muppala P. Reddy, Gadde Ramachandraiah, "Bromide Tolerance in Plants: A Case Study on Halophytes of Indian Coast", SRX Ecology, vol. 2010, Article ID 650678, 6 pages, 2010.

Bromide Tolerance in Plants: A Case Study on Halophytes of Indian Coast

Received06 Aug 2009
Revised28 Oct 2009
Accepted15 Nov 2009
Published16 Feb 2010


Many industrial effluents contain occasionally various toxic elements. Many a time, bromide forms a constituent of the effluents especially originating from coastal regions. Plant materials have been effectively employed as tools to remediate this situation. Some halophytes are the best choice for reducing the toxic levels from affected salanised soils. This paper deals with the bromide uptake and its accumulation effect on the growth of Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda nudiflora, and Salvadora persica, the common halophyts of Indian coast. The species were grown with NaBr solution along with other essential nutrients. The growth in S. brachiata, S. nudiflora, and S. persica was more or less same except for some apparent morphological differences in NaBr grown plants as compared to that in NaCl-fed plants. The bromide present in various parts of these plants was determined by simple and eco-friendly techniques for the first time. A reliable spectrophotometric method was developed and employed to estimate the bromide composition in all plant extracts. The bromide levels were about 0.086–0.2 g in the root, 0.175–0.443 g in stem and 0.287–0.432 g in leaves per g of dry plant material and at higher levels it affected the photosynthetic activity. Cultivation of these plants for reclamation of bromide affected soils has been advocated as an alternative.


  1. D. Pasternak and A. Nerd, “Research and utilization of halophytes in Israel,” in Halophytes and Biosaline Agriculture, L. Malcolm and A. Hamdy, Eds., pp. 325–348, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  2. H. Lieth, M. Moschenko, M. Lohmann, H.-W. Koyro, and A. Hamdy, Halophyte Uses in Different Climates. I. Ecological and Ecophysiological Studies, Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1999.
  3. T. J. Flowers, “Improving crop salt tolerance,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 55, no. 396, pp. 307–319, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. S. D. Cunningham, J. R. Shann, D. E. Crowley, and T. A. Anderson, “Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil,” ACS Symposium Series, vol. 664, pp. 2–17, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  5. R. S. Boyd and S. N. Martens, “The significance of metal hyperaccumulation for biotic interactions,” Chemoecology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  6. C. S. Cobbett, “Phytochelatins and their roles in heavy metal detoxification,” Plant Physiology, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 825–832, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  7. R. B. Meagher, C. L. Rugh, M. K. Kandasamy, G. Gragson, and N. J. Wang, “Engineered phytoremediation of mercury pollution in soil and water using bacterial genes,” in Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water, N. Terry and G. Banuelos, Eds., chapter 11, pp. 203–221, Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  8. E. Meers, P. Vervaeke, F. M. G. Tack, N. Lust, and M. G. Verloo, “Phytoextraction of heavy metals from dredged sediments using intensive cultures of the willow Salix viminalis: field trial setup,” in Proceedings of the 4th WG2 Workshop, pp. 90–93, Bordeaux, France, 2002, COST Action 837. View at: Google Scholar
  9. C. L. Rugh, S. P. Bizily, and R. B. Meagher, “Phytoremediation of environmental mercury pollution,” in Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals Using Plants to Clean-Up the Environment, B. Ensley and I. Raskin, Eds., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  10. D. E. Salt, R. D. Smith, and I. Raskin, “Phytoremediation,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 49, pp. 643–668, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  11. M. P. Reddy, S. Sanish, and E. R. R. Iyengar, “Photosynthetic studies and compartmentation of ions in different tissues of Salicornia brachiata,” Photosynthetica, vol. 26, pp. 273–279, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  12. S. Cherian, M. P. Reddy, and J. B. Pandya, “Studies on salt tolerance in Avicennia marina (forstk vierah): effect of NaCl salinity on growth, ion accumulation and enzyme activity,” Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 4, pp. 266–270, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  13. S. Cherian and M. P. Reddy, “Salt tolerance in the Halophyte Suaeda nudiflora moq: effect of NaCl on growth, ion accumulation and oxidative enzymes,” Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 5, pp. 32–37, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  14. A. Maggio, M. P. Reddy, and R. J. Joly, “Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in the halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. G. G. Rao, A. K. Nayak, A. R. Chinchmalatpure, A. Nath, and V. R. Babu, “Growth and yield of Salvadora persica. A facultative halophytes grown on saline black soil (Vertic Haplustept),” Arid Land Research and Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. A. Debez, K. Ben Hamed, C. Grignon, and C. Abdelly, “Salinity effects on germination, growth, and seed production of the halophyte Cakile maritima,” Plant and Soil, vol. 262, no. 1-2, pp. 179–189, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. P. K. Ghosh, M. P. Reddy, J. B. Pandya et al., “Preparation of nutritious salt of plant origin,” 2005, US patent no. 6,929,809. View at: Google Scholar
  18. E. P. Glenn and J. W. O'Leary, “Relationship between salt accumulation and water content of dicotyledonous halophytes,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 7, pp. 253–261, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  19. S. Adimurthy, V. R. K. S. Susarla, M. P. Reddy, and G. Ramachandraiah, “Spectrophotometric estimation of bromide ion in excess chloride media,” Talanta, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 891–896, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. S. S. Vaghela, A. D. Jethva, B. B. Mehta, S. P. Dave, S. Adimurthy, and G. Ramachandraiah, “Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 2848–2855, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. P. L. Kapur, M. R. Verma, and B. D. Khosla, “Estimation of bromides in the presence of other halides,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 157–158, 1942. View at: Google Scholar
  22. G. Hunter and A. A. Goldsprink, “The micro determination of bromide in presence of chloride,” The Analyst, vol. 79, no. 941, pp. 467–475, 1954. View at: Google Scholar
  23. H. H. Willard and A. H. A. Heyn, “Volumetric determination of bromide in brines,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 321–322, 1943. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. G. Chiu and R. D. Eubanks, “Spectrophotometric determination of bromide,” Mikrochimica Acta, vol. 98, no. 4–6, pp. 145–148, 1989. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. APHA (American Public Health Association), Standard Methods for the Estimation of Water and Wastewater, Part 405, Washington, DC, USA, 1985.
  26. M. Soulard, F. Bloc, and A. Hatterer, “Diagrams of existence of chloramines and bromamines in aqueous solution,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, no. 12, pp. 2300–2310, 1981. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. T. X. Wang, M. D. Kelley, J. N. Cooper, R. C. Beckwith, and D. W. Margerum, “Equilibrium, kinetic, and UV-spectral characteristics of aqueous bromine chloride, bromine, and chlorine species,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 33, no. 25, pp. 5872–5878, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  28. L. Raphael, in Bromine Compounds Chemistry and Applications, D. Price, B. Iddon, and B. J. Wakefield, Eds., pp. 369–384, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
  29. ACC (Aldrich Chemical Company), “Material safety data sheet for basic fuchsin,” Milwaukee, Wis, USA, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  30. D. R. Jones, “Difficulties with the chloramine-T-Phenol Red method for bromide determination,” Talanta, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1243–1247, 1989. View at: Google Scholar
  31. H. M. Dave, S. K. Naiya, N. N. Sharma, and K. Seshadri, “Determination of iodine in marine algae,” Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, vol. 1, pp. 221–222, 1973. View at: Google Scholar
  32. O. P. Mairh, B. K. Ramavat, A. Tewari, R. M. Oza, and H. V. Joshi, “Seasonal variation, bioaccumulation and prevention of loss of iodine in seaweeds,” Phytochemistry, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 3307–3310, 1989. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2010 Mallampati S. Reddy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Related articles

No related content is available yet for this article.
 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

No related content is available yet for this article.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.