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Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 148436, 12 pages
Research Article

CFD Approaches for Modelling Bubble Entrainment by an Impinging Jet

Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany

Received 31 March 2008; Accepted 25 June 2008

Academic Editor: Fabio Moretti

Copyright © 2009 Martin Schmidtke and Dirk Lucas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This contribution presents different approaches for the modeling of gas entrainment under water by a plunging jet. Since the generation of bubbles happens on a scale which is smaller than the bubbles, this process cannot be resolved in meso-scale simulations, which include the full length of the jet and its environment. This is why the gas entrainment has to be modeled in meso-scale simulations. In the frame of a Euler-Euler simulation, the local morphology of the phases has to be considered in the drag model. For example, the gas is a continuous phase above the water level but bubbly below the water level. Various drag models are tested and their influence on the gas void fraction below the water level is discussed. The algebraic interface area density (AIAD) model applies a drag coefficient for bubbles and a different drag coefficient for the free surface. If the AIAD model is used for the simulation of impinging jets, the gas entrainment depends on the free parameters included in this model. The calculated gas entrainment can be adapted via these parameters. Therefore, an advanced AIAD approach could be used in future for the implementation of models (e.g., correlations) for the gas entrainment.