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Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 802410, 8 pages
Research Article

Ludwig: A Training Simulator of the Safety Operation of a CANDU Reactor

CNEA-CONICET and Universidad Nacional del Centro, 7000 Tandil, Argentina

Received 31 August 2010; Accepted 1 December 2010

Academic Editor: Juan Ferreri

Copyright © 2011 Gustavo Boroni and Alejandro Clausse. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents the application Ludwig designed to train operators of a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) by means of a computer control panel that simulates the response of the evolution of the physical variables of the plant under normal transients. The model includes a close set of equations representing the principal components of a CANDU NPP plant, a nodalized primary circuit, core, pressurizer, and steam generators. The design of the application was performed using the object-oriented programming paradigm, incorporating an event-driven process to reflect the action of the human operators and the automatic control system. A comprehensive set of online graphical displays are provided giving an in-depth understanding of transient neutronic and thermal hydraulic response of the power plant. The model was validated against data from a real transient occurring in the Argentine NPP Embalse Río Tercero, showing good agreement. However, it should be stressed that the aim of the simulator is in the training of operators and engineering students.