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Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 214381, 6 pages
Research Article

Aqueous Nanofluid as a Two-Phase Coolant for PWR

NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182, Russia

Received 19 May 2012; Revised 28 August 2012; Accepted 11 September 2012

Academic Editor: Boštjan Končar

Copyright © 2012 Pavel N. Alekseev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Density fluctuations in liquid water consist of two topological kinds of instant molecular clusters. The dense ones have helical hydrogen bonds and the nondense ones are tetrahedral clusters with ice-like hydrogen bonds of water molecules. Helical ordering of protons in the dense water clusters can participate in coherent vibrations. The ramified interface of such incompatible structural elements induces clustering impurities in any aqueous solution. These additives can enhance a heat transfer of water as a two-phase coolant for PWR due to natural forming of nanoparticles with a thermal conductivity higher than water. The aqueous nanofluid as a new condensed matter has a great potential for cooling applications. It is a mixture of liquid water and dispersed phase of extremely fine quasi-solid particles usually less than 50 nm in size with the high thermal conductivity. An alternative approach is the formation of gaseous (oxygen or hydrogen) nanoparticles in density fluctuations of water. It is possible to obtain stable nanobubbles that can considerably exceed the molecular solubility of oxygen (hydrogen) in water. Such a nanofluid can convert the liquid water in the nonstoichiometric state and change its reduction-oxidation (RedOx) potential similarly to adding oxidants (or antioxidants) for applying 2D water chemistry to aqueous coolant.