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Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2014, Article ID 108782, 11 pages
Research Article

Approach and Development of Effective Models for Simulation of Thermal Stratification and Mixing Induced by Steam Injection into a Large Pool of Water

Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 10 January 2014; Accepted 22 May 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Leon Cizelj

Copyright © 2014 Hua Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Steam venting and condensation in a large pool of water can lead to either thermal stratification or thermal mixing. In a pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a boiling water reactor (BWR), consistent thermal mixing maximizes the capacity of the pool while the development of thermal stratification can reduce the steam condensation capacity of the pool which in turn can lead to pressure increase in the containment and thereafter the consequences can be severe. Advanced modeling and simulation of direct contact condensation in large systems remain a challenge as evident in commercial and research codes mainly due to small time-steps necessary to resolve contact condensation in long transients. In this work, effective models, namely, the effective heat source (EHS) and effective momentum source (EMS) models, are proposed to model and simulate thermal stratification and mixing during a steam injection into a large pool of water. Specifically, the EHS/EMS models are developed for steam injection through a single vertical pipe submerged in a pool under two condensation regimes: complete condensation inside the pipe and chugging. These models are computationally efficient since small scale behaviors are not resolved but their integral effect on the large scale flow structure in the pool is taken into account.