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Shock and Vibration
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 523675, 14 pages
Research Article

A Study on Instantaneous Time-Frequency Methods for Damage Detection of Nonlinear Moment-Resisting Frames

School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, P.O. Box 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

Received 9 April 2013; Accepted 14 June 2013; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editor: Gyuhae Park

Copyright © 2014 Ehsan Darvishan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Most of the civil structures exhibit nonlinear hysteresis behavior during earthquakes. However, detection of damage in these structures is a challenging issue due to successive change in structural characteristics during a seismic excitation. The current paper presents a promising approach for damage detection of nonlinear moment frames. First, several instantaneous time-frequency methods including Hilbert-Huang transform, direct quadrature, Teager energy operator, and higher-order energy operator are investigated as signal processing tools and the most appropriate method is selected using an outlier analysis. Next, a procedure is proposed based on time-frequency analysis in conjunction with clustering to find damage extension in moment frames under a seismic excitation using frequency, amplitude, and energy damage measures. A probabilistic approach is implemented to investigate capability of the procedure for different ground motion records using incremental dynamic analysis. Results show that frequency is not an appropriate feature to detect damage in nonlinear structures.