The transverse vibration of an axially accelerating viscoelastic plate is investigated. The governing equation is derived from the two-dimensional viscoelastic differential constitutive relation while the resulting equation is discretized by the differential quadrature method (DQM). By introducing state vector, the first-order state equation with periodic coefficients is established and then it is solved by Runge-Kutta method. Based on the Floquet theory, the dynamic instability regions and dynamic stability regions for the accelerating plate are determined and the effects of the system parameters on dynamic stability of the plate are discussed.