Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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Acceptance rate34%
Submission to final decision111 days
Acceptance to publication24 days
CiteScore7.400
Journal Citation Indicator1.450
Impact Factor4.3

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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases brings together the latest research on infectious diseases considered to hold the greatest economic threat to animals and humans worldwide.

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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study. 

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We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

The Unspoken Wounds: Understanding the Psychological Impact on Healthcare Professionals Fighting COVID-19 in Pakistan

During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital staff faced numerous mental health challenges. However, limited research focused on anxiety and stress specifically among hospital workers during this time. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. A multidimensional, cross-sectional survey was distributed to healthcare workers and staff at hospitals, COVID-19 laboratories, and healthcare settings. The survey included a total of 625 frontline healthcare workers, with 445 (71.2%) being male and 180 (28.8%) female. There were 405 (64.8%) lab professionals, 90 (14.0%) doctors, and 130 (20.8%) others, including nursing staff, administrative personnel, and supporting staff crucial to the functioning of healthcare settings. Among the lab professionals, 37.0% reported moderate depression levels and 16.0% reported severe depression levels during the pandemic. For doctors, 22.2% experienced mild depression and 33.33% experienced severe depression. Several factors were significantly associated with depression and anxiety among frontline healthcare workers, including physiological and social factors, fear of infection, risk of infecting family members and colleagues, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), long working hours, untrained staff, social issues, and cooperation problems. These factors collectively contributed to reduced work efficacy during the pandemic. Frontline health workers played a critical role in the fight against COVID-19. The findings from this study have important implications for developing strategies to improve the mental health of healthcare workers during the pandemic and implementing policies that enhance work efficacy, ultimately leading to the improved outcomes.

Research Article

Descriptive Epidemiology and Phylodynamics of the “First Wave” of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4b) in British Columbia and the Yukon, Canada, April to September 2022

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease that causes significant rates of morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry and wild birds, with occasional spillover into mammals, including humans. Beginning in November 2021, Canada experienced its longest and largest outbreak of HPAI in history. A portion of this outbreak (H5N1, clade 2.3.4.4b) occurred in western Canada, specifically in British Columbia (B.C.) and the Yukon, between April 12 and September 11, 2022, which was classified as the “first wave” in this region. Wild birds and mammals identified through passive surveillance and suspect domestic poultry flocks were screened for avian influenza virus (AIV), typed H5 by qPCR, and positive cases were whole genome sequenced. Descriptive epidemiological and phylodynamic analyses were performed to: (1) understand the taxonomic and geographic extent of wild species involved; and (2) examine the origins and probable transmission networks of HPAI viruses introduced into B.C./Yukon by comparing local viruses with those circulating elsewhere in North America. This outbreak included 21 species of wild birds, 2 species of wild mammals, 4 commercial, and 12 domestic small flock infected premises. Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were the most common wild species detected. We demonstrate that north-south avian migration via the Pacific Flyway is the probable route of multiple incursions into this region. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) segment revealed that the B.C./Yukon viruses detected formed five distinct genetic clusters which were maintained across the whole genome. Although, the genome segments were predominantly Eurasian in origin, NP and PB2 segments from all samples, as well as NS and PB1 segments from Cluster 3, had North American origins. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of genomic epidemiology to inform HPAI transmission dynamics across Western Canada and discuss potential knowledge gaps that exist in passive surveillance strategies for HPAI.

Research Article

Toxoplasmosis Behind Bars: One Health Approach on Serosurvey Dynamics and Associated Risk Factors for Women Inmates, Correctional Officers, and In-Prison Feral Cats

Brazil holds the third highest general and fifth female incarcerated population worldwide. Despite the incarceration ecosystem that may favor the spreading of zoonotic diseases, particularly when unattended animals are present, no comprehensive study has focused on toxoplasmosis dynamics in such environment. Accordingly, the present study has aimed to serologically assess anti-Toxoplasma gondii (IgG) antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test in inmates, correctional officers, and feral cats at the Women’s State Penitentiary of Parana, southern Brazil. In overall, 230/506 (45.5%; CI 95%: 41.2–49.8) incarcerated women, 31/91 (34.1%; 95% CI: 25.2–44.3) correctional officers, and 23/39 (59.0%; CI 95%: 43.2–72.9) cats were seropositive to anti-T. gondii antibodies. Logistic regression revealed that seropositivity likelihood increased with consumption of raw meat () and decreased with elementary educational level (). No statistical difference was found comparing seropositivity between inmates and correctional officers (). As women inmates have been considered among the most vulnerable groups in disease morbidity and mortality, seropositivity observed herein may be directly related to vulnerability and high T. gondii oocyst exposure dispersed in cat feces during incarceration.

Research Article

Species, Natural Leishmania spp. Detection and Blood Meal Sources of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Peridomiciles from a Leishmaniases Endemic Area of Brazil

Leishmaniases are important neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania spp. The female sandflies bite (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main transmission form in the epidemiological chains of these diseases. Thus, studies on Phlebotominae subfamily are fundamental to improve the comprehension of the leishmaniases epidemiology, revealing relationships of these dipterans with the parasite and reservoirs. An entomological survey of Phlebotomine sandflies was carried out to investigate the fauna, Leishmania spp. DNA detection and blood meals sources of female sandflies captured in peridomiciles areas from a leishmaniases endemic area of São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 637 Phlebotomine sandflies specimens were captured, and twelve species identified, some of them proven or suspected vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Evandromyia (Aldamyia) carmelinoi and Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis PCR positive to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) were identified. Also, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis kDNA was found in Evandromyia (Aldamyia) lenti and Lu. (Lu.) longipalpis. Regarding blood meals source, DNA of swine, humans, dogs, cattle, chickens, and opossums were detected in the midgut of Phlebotomine sandflies females captured in the study area. Our results highlight ecological relationships among different species of Phlebotomine sandflies, domestic and wild-synanthropic vertebrates (including humans) and two Leishmania species in peridomiciles from a leishmaniases endemic area of Brazil.

Research Article

Ecological and Genetic Landscapes of Global H12 Avian Influenza Viruses and Biological Characteristics of an H12N5 Virus Isolated from Wild Ducks in Eastern China

Wild migratory birds are considered the central reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. H12 viruses are one of the 16 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza viruses and are rarely reported because they are infrequently detected in birds. Consequently, the ecological and genetic profiles of H12 viruses and their adaptation in domestic birds and mammals remain unclear. Here, we found that H12N5 viruses were predominant in the nine identified H12NX subtypes, with the HA (H12) and neuraminidase (NA) (N5) genes showing combination bias in the categorized analysis of subtype combinations (H12 and N1–N9; H1–H12, H14, H15, and N5). These identified H12N5 viruses were primarily detected in birds of Anatidae and Scolopacidae in North America, excluding their possible characterization as chicken or mammalian viruses. The H12N5 viruses were divided into the North American lineage and Eurasian lineage according to their genetic differences, including the HA and NA surface genes and internal genes, although reassortment was observed between the two lineages. We isolated an Eurasian-lineage H12N5 virus from wild ducks in Eastern China, which was one of the 12 identified H12 viruses in China. Infectivity studies indicated that the H12N5 virus is poorly adapted to domestic ducks and chickens, although viral shedding could be detected in both inoculated and contact birds. Additionally, the naturally isolated H12N5 virus did not achieve good replication in mice. These results indicate that the rare subtype of H12 viruses was mainly pooled in wild migratory birds and has an established phylogeography, with low risks of spillover into domestic birds and mammals.

Research Article

A Comprehensive Study of Cellular and Humoral Immunity in Dogs Naturally Exposed to SARS-CoV-2

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causal agent behind coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease declared pandemic in 2020. Because of the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the close contact kept by domestic dogs with their owners, it became imperative to understand the role of dogs in the epidemiology of the disease and in the virus transmission. In the present study, we determined the presence of virus and described the long-term immune effects of SARS-CoV-2 in 24 dogs exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in the domestic environment. Our findings highlight that only a subset of dogs, naturally exposed to SARS-CoV-2, exhibit a humoral response to the new virus (close to 17% had IgM antibodies and close to 33% has IgG antibodies). We identified for the first time SARS-CoV-2-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells in dogs (approximately in half of our dogs). While 56% of dogs maintained humoral response 8 months, only 22% of dogs maintained cellular response after 4 and 8 months. Although some alterations in blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines were described, there was no evidence indicating an exacerbated cytokine release process. Considering that none of the animals enrolled in this study showed viral shedding and presented specific immune responses, it is reasonable to propose that the canine immune system in certain companion dogs is effective at blocking the negative effects of viral replication, thereby suggesting that dogs would not be potential transmitters of this pathogen to the other dogs or other species and could aid in promoting collective immunity.

Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Publishing Collaboration
More info
Wiley Hindawi logo
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate34%
Submission to final decision111 days
Acceptance to publication24 days
CiteScore7.400
Journal Citation Indicator1.450
Impact Factor4.3
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Article of the Year Award: Impactful research contributions of 2022, as selected by our Chief Editors. Discover the winning articles.