Table of Contents
Thrombosis
Volume 2014, Article ID 753780, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/753780
Research Article

Cardioembolic Sources in Stroke Patients in South of Brazil

Hospital São Lucas, Instituto do Cérebro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Ipiranga 6690, Room 220, 90610-000 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Received 30 June 2014; Revised 24 September 2014; Accepted 24 September 2014; Published 2 October 2014

Academic Editor: Thomas Kickler

Copyright © 2014 Luiz Carlos Porcello Marrone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil and around the world. Cardioembolism is responsible for nearly 30% of the origins of ischemic stroke. Methods. We analyzed data of 256 patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke (according to TOAST classification) who were admitted into the Hospital São Lucas-PUCRS from October 2011 to January 2014. The cardioembolic subtype was divided into six subgroups: arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, septal abnormalities, and intracardiac injuries. The prevalence of the most important cardiovascular risk factors and medications in use for prevention of systemic embolism by the time of hospital admission was analyzed in each patient. Results. Among 256 patients aged 60.2 +/− 6.9 years, 132 males, arrhythmias were the most common cause of cardioembolism corresponding to 50.7%, followed by valvular heart disease (17.5%) and coronary artery disease (16%). Hypertension (61.7%) and dyslipidemia (43.7%) were the most common risk factors. Less than 50% of patients with arrhythmias were using oral anticoagulants. Conclusions. Identifying the prevalence of cardioembolic stroke sources subgroups has become an increasingly important role since the introduction of new oral anticoagulants. In this study, arrhythmias (especially atrial fibrillation) were the main cause of cardioembolism.