Table of Contents
Volume 2016, Article ID 4965458, 5 pages
Review Article

The Typical Presentation Spectrum of Deep Vein Thrombosis Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Malformations

1San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy
2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
3Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
4Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6500 Lugano, Switzerland
5Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6900 Bellinzona, Switzerland

Received 31 March 2016; Revised 8 June 2016; Accepted 14 June 2016

Academic Editor: Giovanni de Gaetano

Copyright © 2016 Agostino Pozzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Congenital malformations of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and underreported. They can be a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as a result of inadequate venous drainage of the lower extremities through collateral circulation. The significant number of cases reported in the literature highlights their importance, warranting investigating their existence in younger individuals with idiopathic DVT of the lower extremities and pelvic veins. In this systematic review, we depict the typical presentation of IVC malformations, their management, and the management of their associated DVT.