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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Volume 2013, Article ID 650561, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Mycobacterial Etiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Association with HIV Infection and Multidrug Resistance in Northern Nigeria

1Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 725 West Lombard Street S424, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
3Institute of Human Virology-Nigeria, Plot 252, Herbert Macaulay Way, Central Business District, P.O. Box 9396 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
4National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Training Center, P. M. B. 1089 Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria

Received 22 March 2013; Accepted 19 June 2013

Academic Editor: Jacques Grosset

Copyright © 2013 Gambo Aliyu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. Data on pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in Nigeria are limited. We investigated species of MTB complex in TB cases from northern Nigeria. Methods. New TB suspects were enrolled, screened for HIV and their sputum samples were cultured after routine microscopy. Genotypes MTBC and MTBDRplus were used to characterize the MTB complex species and their resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin. Results. Of the 1,603 patients enrolled, 375 (23%) had MTB complex infection: 354 (94.4%) had Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 20 (5.3%) had Mycobacterium africanum; and one had Mycobacterium bovis (0.3%). Cases were more likely to be male (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI : 1.42–2.46; ), young (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI : 1.56–2.65; ) and have HIV (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI : 1.06–1.92; ). In 23 patients (6.1%), the mycobacterium was resistant to at least one drug, and these cases were more likely to have HIV and prior TB treatment (AOR = 3.62, 95% CI : 1.51–8.84; ; AOR : 4.43; 95% CI : 1.71–11.45 resp.), compared to cases without any resistance. Conclusion. Mycobacterium tuberculosis remained the predominant specie in TB in this setting followed by Mycobacterium africanum while Mycobacterium bovis was rare. The association of TB drug resistance with HIV has implications for TB treatment.