Tuberculosis Research and Treatment / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Source Case Investigation for Children with TB Disease in Pune, India

Table 2

Characteristics of pediatric index cases by HIV status.

CharacteristicsTotal
()
HIV-positive
()
HIV-negativea  
()
HIV status unknown () value

Tuberculosis risk factors
Household contact with confirmed TB15 (30%)4 (44%)10 (27%)1 (20%)0.42
Household contact with TB symptoms10 (20%)3 (33%)6 (16%)1 (20%)0.35
Received IPT in the past1 (2%)1 (11%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0.20
Received BCG vaccine48 (96%)7 (77%)36 (100%)5 (100%)0.03
Type of cook stove 0.12
 Gas12 (24%)2 (22%)6 (16%)4 (80%)
 Kerosene27 (54%)3 (33%)24 (66%)0 (0%)
 Biomass11 (22%)4 (44%)6 (16%)1 (20%)
Smoker in the home7 (14%)0 (0%)7 (19%)0 (0%)0.31
Tuberculosis history
Symptoms present at diagnosisb46 (92%)9 (100%)33 (91%)4 (80%)0.37
Positive diagnostic test for TB50 (100%)9 (100%)36 (100%)5 (100%)0.83
 Mantoux26 (52%)4 (44%)20 (56%)2 (40%)
 Sputum4 (8%)0 (0%)2 (0.06%)2 (40%)
 Gastric aspirate1 (2%)0 (0%)1 (0.03%)0 (0%)
 Chest X-ray27 (54%)6 (67%)17 (47%)4 (80%)
 Ultrasound22 (44%)6 (67%)15 (42%)1 (20%)
Type of TB diagnosedc0.40
Confirmed TB cases0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Probable TB cases  ()
  Pulmonary TB3 (60%)0 (0%)2 (67%)1 (50%)
  Extrapulmonary TB0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
   More than 1 type of TB2 (40%)0 (0%)1 (33%)1 (50%)
Possible TB cases  ()
   Pulmonary TB16 (35%)2 (25%)11 (34%)3 (60%)
   Extrapulmonary TB17 (37%)2 (25%)14 (43%)1 (20%)
   More than 1 type of TB10 (22%)3 (37%)6 (18%)1 (20%)
   Type of TB not recorded2 (4%)1 (12%)1 (3%)0 (0%)
Treated with Category 1d medications49 (98%)9 (100%)35 (97%)5 (100%)0.61
 Completed treatment2 (4%)0 (0%)2 (5%)0 (0%)0.63
Difficulty in obtaining medications7 (14%)1 (11%)6 (16%)0 (0%)0.68

BCG: bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, HIV: human immunodeficiency virus, IPT: isoniazid preventive therapy, TB: tuberculosis.
aSix of the 50 children had unknown HIV status.
bTB symptoms of cough, fever, weight loss, or night sweats.
cTwo of the index cases did not specify what type of TB (1 HIV-positive case and 1 HIV-negative case).
dCategory I is isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for two months followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months.
Category II is isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin for two months followed by isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for one month followed by isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol for five months.
Category III is isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide for three months followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months.

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