Tuberculosis Research and Treatment / 2017 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013

Table 3

Factors associated with mortality among TB patients in southern Zimbabwe, 2013.

CharacteristicsDied, (%)Univariate RR (95% CI)Multivariate-adjusted RR
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4

Total1,847428 (23.2)
Age (in years)
 <56311 (17.5)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 5–146911 (15.9)0.91 (0.43–1.96)0.91 (0.42–1.99)0.89 (0.43–2.00)1.76 (0.66–4.66)1.07 (0.39–2.94)
 15–441,257290 (23.1)1.32 (0.77–2.28)1.17 (0.65–2.10)1.16 (0.64–2.09)2.17 (0.97–4.84)1.12 (0.47–2.65)
 45–6434774 (21.3)1.22 (0.69–2.17)1.10 (0.60–2.01)1.12 (0.61–2.4)2.02 (0.91–4.51)0.95 (0.39–2.32)
 65+10741 (38.3)2.19 (1.223.95)2.48 (1.35–4.55)2.47 (1.35–4.57)3.13 (1.4–6.98)1.37 (0.5–3.8)
 Missing data41 (25)
Type of health facility1847
 Rural health clinic870214 (24.6)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Mission/rural hospital31979 (24.8)1.01 (0.80–1.26)0.96 (0.77–1.20)1.04 (0.62–1.76)0.94 (0.94-0.94)0.91 (0.68–1.21)
 Polyclinic25435 (13.8)0.56 (0.40–0.78)0.56 (0.40–0.78)0.22 (0.07–0.7)0.55 (0.39–0.77)0.57 (0.39–0.85)
 District/provincial hospital39898 (24.6)1.00 (0.81–1.23)0.99 (0.81–1.21)0.33 (0.12–0.9)0.9 (0.9-0.9)0.78 (0.59–1.02)
 Missing data62 (33.3)
TB category
 New TB1557337 (21.6)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Retreatment TB28890 (31.3)1.44 (1.19–1.76)1.34 (1.10–1.63)1.2 (0.65–2.22)1.53 (1.39–1.68)1.59 (1.24–2.04)
 Missing data21 (50)
HIV status
 HIV-negative39659 (14.9)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 HIV-positive1439364 (25.3)1.70 (1.32–2.18)1.87 (1.44–2.42)
 HIV unknown11 (100)
 Missing data114 (36.4)
WHO clinical staging at ART
 I273 (11.1)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 II709 (12.9)1.16 (0.343.95)0.65 (0.17–2.43)
 III47069 (14.7)1.32 (0.443.93)1.22 (0.45–3.31)
 IV395 (12.8)1.15 (0.304.43)1.29 (0.36–4.58)
 Missing data831278 (33.4)
CD4 count at ART initiation(cells/mL)
 ≤509428 (29.8)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 51–20013215 (11.4)0.38 (0.22–0.67)0.40 (0.23–0.7)
 201–350689 (13.2)0.44 (0.22–0.88)0.47 (0.24–0.91)
 351–500271 (3.7)0.12 (0.02–0.87)0.13 (0.02–0.88)
 >500295 (17.2)0.58 (0.25–1.36)0.61 (0.26–1.46)
 Missing data1,089306 (28.1)
ART use
 No11790 (76.9)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes1,322274 (20.7)0.27 (0.23–0.31)0.25 (0.22–0.29)
ART initiation in relation to start of TB
 >3 months before TB treatment39283 (21.2)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 0–3 months before TB treatment16556 (33.9)0.84 (0.63–1.12)1.8 (1.34–2.43)
 <2 weeks after TB treatment51573 (14.2)1.34 (0.99–1.82)0.73 (0.54–0.98)
 2–8 weeks after TB treatment132 (15.4)0.56 (0.41–0.76)0.88 (0.24–3.19)
 Not recorded23760 (25.3)

RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval; TB = tuberculosis; PTB = pulmonary TB; EPTB = extrapulmonary PTB; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; WHO = World Health Organisation; ART = antiretroviral therapy.
variables refer only to those who were diagnosed as HIV-positive.
generalized linear regression models 2, 3, and 4 exclude HIV-negative and HIV unknown patients.
Model 1 assesses HIV status whilst adjusting for the potential confounding effects of age, type of health facility, and TB category.
Model 2 assesses WHO clinical staging and CD4 count at ART initiation whilst adjusting for the potential confounding effect of age, type of health facility, and TB category.
Model 3 assesses ART use (yes/no) whilst adjusting for the potential confounding effect of age, type of health facility, and TB category.
Model 4 assesses “ART timing in relation to start of TB treatment” whilst adjusting for potential confounding effect of age, type of health facility, and TB category.

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