Tuberculosis Research and Treatment The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Knowledge about Tuberculosis: A Precursor to Effective TB Control—Findings from a Follow-Up National KAP Study on Tuberculosis among Nigerians Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a significant and major public health emergency globally. Nigeria is one of the 22 high burden Tuberculosis countries. A high level of community awareness and positive perception towards TB and its management is crucial for the success of any control strategy. A national baseline survey was conducted in 2008 and a follow-up study in 2012 to measure knowledge of TB among the general population. This study therefore evaluated the knowledge of the target population about Tuberculosis in the follow-up study. A cross-sectional study design was employed with a total of 3,021 respondents interviewed from six states selected randomly from each of the six geopolitical zones in the country. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were adopted. From the findings, about 60% of the respondents were aged between 21 and 40 years and more than half had secondary school education. Over 80% had ever heard about TB. Although there has been a significant improvement in correct knowledge of the cause of TB from baseline (19%) in 2008 to 26.5% in 2012 (), findings showed that prioritized interventions are needed to improve communication and information dissemination on Tuberculosis to the general public, to aid TB control and all prevention efforts. A. O. Hassan, Richard Olukolade, Q. C. Ogbuji, S. Afolabi, L. C. Okwuonye, O. C. Kusimo, J. A. Osho, K. A. Osinowo, and O. A. Ladipo Copyright © 2017 A. O. Hassan et al. All rights reserved. Triple Cultures Increase the Diagnostic Sensitivity of Mycobacterial Tuberculosis Empyema Tue, 05 Sep 2017 08:54:52 +0000 Background. There is a continuous debate on the appropriate diagnostic approach and surgical management of mycobacterial empyema, with widely varied diagnostic practices and surgical outcomes. The aim of this study is to highlight the diagnostic approach and clinical features of patients who required surgical intervention for mycobacterial empyema. Methods. We performed a 5-year retrospective cohort study of all patients with mycobacterial empyema requiring surgery in a single institution from November 2009 to November 2014. Results. Eighteen patients (15 males and 3 females, median age 48.5 years) required surgery. Seventeen patients required decortication via posterolateral thoracotomy and one patient underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery drainage and pleural debridement. Prolonged air leak was the commonest surgical complication (50%, ). 94.4% () had necrotizing granulomatous inflammation on histological examination. The sensitivity of mycobacterium smear and culture ranged between 12.5% and 75% for pleural tissue, sputum, and pleural fluid individually. The combination of all 3 samples increased the diagnostic yield to 100%. Conclusion. With the implementation of pleural tissue culture at surgery, the novel combination of sputum, pleural fluid, and pleural tissue culture provides excellent diagnostic yield. Kingsfield Ong, Keerthi Rajapaksha, Chin Siang Ong, Ali Akbar Fazuludeen, and Aneez Dokeu Basheer Ahmed Copyright © 2017 Kingsfield Ong et al. All rights reserved. TB Notification from Private Health Sector in Delhi, India: Challenges Encountered by Programme Personnel and Private Health Care Providers Sun, 06 Aug 2017 09:20:25 +0000 Objective. To identify the challenges encountered by private health care providers (PHCP) to notify tuberculosis cases through a programme developed web-based portal mechanism called “NIKSHAY.” Study Design. It is a descriptive qualitative study conducted at two revised national tuberculosis control programme (RNTCP) districts of New Delhi. The study included in-depth interviews of PHCP registered with “NIKSHAY” and RNTCP programme personnel. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the latent social patterns in implementation of tuberculosis case notification process and promptly identifying their challenges. Results. The analysis resulted in identification of three broad themes: (a) system implementation by RNTCP: it emphasizes the TB notification process by the RNTCP programme personnel; (b) challenges faced by PHCP for TB notification with five different subthemes; and (c) perceived gaps and suggestions: to improvise the TB notification process for the private health sector. The challenges encountered by PHCP were mainly related to unsystematic planning and suboptimal implementation by programme personnel at the state and district level. The PHCP lacked clarity on the need for TB notification. Conclusion. Implementation of TB notification among private health care providers requires systematic planning by the programme personnel. The process should be user-friendly with additional benefits to the patients. Mahasweta Satpati, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Prabhakaran Ottapura Aslesh, Blesson Samuel, Ashwani Khanna, and Sarabjit Chadha Copyright © 2017 Mahasweta Satpati et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of DNA Extraction Protocols and Molecular Targets to Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis Tue, 30 May 2017 08:35:16 +0000 Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate in-house molecular diagnostic protocols of DNA extraction directly from CSF samples and the targets amplified by qPCR as an accurate and fast diagnosis of TBM. One hundred CSF samples from 68 patients suspected of TBM were studied. Four DNA extraction techniques (phenol-chloroform-thiocyanate guanidine, silica thiocyanate guanidine, resin, and resin with ethanol) were compared and CSF samples were used to determine the best target (IS6110, MPB64, and hsp65 KDa) by qPCR. The extraction protocol using the phenol-chloroform-thiocyanate guanidine showed the best results in terms of quantification and sensitivity of PCR amplification, presenting up to 10 times more DNA than the second best protocol, the silica guanidine thiocyanate. The target that showed the best result for TBM diagnosis was the IS6110. This target showed 91% sensitivity and 97% specificity when we analyzed the results by sample and showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity when we analyzed the results by patient. The DNA extraction with phenol-chloroform-thiocyanate guanidine followed by IS6110 target amplification has been shown to be suitable for diagnosis of TBM in our clinical setting. Flavia Silva Palomo, Martha Gabriela Celle Rivero, Milene Gonçalves Quiles, Fernando Pereira Pinto, Antonia Maria de Oliveira Machado, and Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari Copyright © 2017 Flavia Silva Palomo et al. All rights reserved. Immigrant Arrival and Tuberculosis among Large Immigrant- and Refugee-Receiving Countries, 2005–2009 Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:53:08 +0000 Objective. Tuberculosis control in foreign-born populations is a major public health concern for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States, large immigrant- and refugee-receiving countries that comprise the Immigration and Refugee Health Working Group (IRHWG). Identifying and comparing immigration and distribution of foreign-born tuberculosis cases are important for developing targeted and collaborative interventions. Methods. Data stratified by year and country of birth from 2005 to 2009 were received from these five countries. Immigration totals, tuberculosis case totals, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) case totals from source countries were analyzed and compared to reveal similarities and differences for each member of the group. Results. Between 2005 and 2009, there were a combined 31,785,002 arrivals, 77,905 tuberculosis cases, and 888 MDR TB cases notified at the federal level in the IRHWG countries. India, China, Vietnam, and the Philippines accounted for 41.4% of the total foreign-born tuberculosis cases and 42.7% of the foreign-born MDR tuberculosis cases to IRHWG. Interpretation. Collaborative efforts across a small number of countries have the potential to yield sizeable gains in tuberculosis control for these large immigrant- and refugee-receiving countries. Zachary White, John Painter, Paul Douglas, Ibrahim Abubakar, Howard Njoo, Chris Archibald, Jessica Halverson, John Robson, and Drew L. Posey Copyright © 2017 Zachary White et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013 Thu, 02 Mar 2017 08:46:36 +0000 Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46–282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35–4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10–1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22–0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART. Kudakwashe C. Takarinda, Charles Sandy, Nyasha Masuka, Patrick Hazangwe, Regis C. Choto, Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Brilliant Nkomo, Edwin Sibanda, Owen Mugurungi, Anthony D. Harries, and Nicholas Siziba Copyright © 2017 Kudakwashe C. Takarinda et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Mon, 27 Feb 2017 07:43:33 +0000 Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%), 233 (54.8%), and 262 (61.6%) of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5)] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4)] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70)] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94)], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care. Getinet Shewaseged Adenager, Fessahaye Alemseged, Henok Asefa, and Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin Copyright © 2017 Getinet Shewaseged Adenager et al. All rights reserved. Nanotechnology-Based Approach in Tuberculosis Treatment Sun, 22 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment. Therefore, we need an effective and robust system to subdue technological drawbacks and improve the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs which still remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical technology. Nanoparticle-based ideology has shown convincing treatment and promising outcomes for chronic infectious diseases. Different types of nanocarriers have been evaluated as promising drug delivery systems for various administration routes. Controlled and sustained release of drugs is one of the advantages of nanoparticle-based antituberculosis drugs over free drug. It also reduces the dosage frequency and resolves the difficulty of low poor compliance. This paper reviews various nanotechnology-based therapies which can be used for the treatment of TB. Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md. Kausar Neyaz, and Shilpi Das Copyright © 2017 Mohammad Nasiruddin et al. All rights reserved. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sudanese Patients Wed, 18 Jan 2017 09:46:21 +0000 Background. Currently, mutations in rpoB, KatG, and rrs genes and inhA promoter were considered to be involved in conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Objective. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of first-line tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance among a group of previously treated and newly detected TB patients, to determine the association between prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and demographic information (age and sex), to explain genes correlated with MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to characterize MTB via 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) analysis. Methods. A hundred MTB isolates from Sudanese pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. The proportional method of drug susceptibility test was carried out on Löwenstein-Jensen media. Multiplex PCR of rpoB and KatG genes and inhA promoter was conducted; then rrs genes were amplified by conventional PCR and were sequenced. The sequences of the PCR product were compared with known rrs gene sequences in the GenBank database by multiple sequence alignment tools. Result. The prevalence of MDR was 14.7% among old cases and 5.3% among newly diagnosed cases. Conclusion. Mutations in rrs could be considered as a diagnostic marker. Solima M. A. Sabeel, Mohamed Ahmed Salih, Manasik Ali, Salah-Eldin EL-Zaki, Nadir Abuzeid, Zeinab Abubaker Mohammed Elgadi, Hisham N. Altayb, Asrar M. A. Elegail, Nuha Y. Ibrahim, and Bahaeldin K. Elamin Copyright © 2017 Solima M. A. Sabeel et al. All rights reserved. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs Mon, 05 Sep 2016 06:56:31 +0000 Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment. Guesly J. Delva, Ingrid Francois, Cassidy W. Claassen, Darwin Dorestan, Barbara Bastien, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Dumesle St. Fort, Robert R. Redfield, and Ulrike K. Buchwald Copyright © 2016 Guesly J. Delva et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study Tue, 30 Aug 2016 15:38:02 +0000 Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them. Rajib Saha Copyright © 2016 Rajib Saha. All rights reserved. Treatment Outcome and Associated Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in Debre Tabor, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study Mon, 15 Aug 2016 07:05:21 +0000 Background. Assessing the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important indicator for evaluation of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs. In Ethiopia, directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) was included in the national tuberculosis control program as a strategy but little is known about its effectiveness in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the treatment outcomes of TB patients and associated factors in Debre Tabor, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among TB patients for the period from May 2008 to April 2013 at Debre Tabor Health Center, northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics were used to generate frequency tables and figures. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes at value ≤ 0.05. Results. Out of 339 patients (197 males and 142 females) registered for antituberculosis treatment in Debre Tabor Health Center, only 303 patients were included in the treatment outcome analysis and 87.1% had successful treatment outcome while 12.9% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of successful treatment outcome were higher among patients ≥45 years of age (, 95% CI: 1.155–12.544) and lower among females (, 95% CI: 0.132–0.917), rural residents (, 95% CI: 0.118–0.986), and negative smear result at the second month of treatment (, 95% CI: 0.005–0.577) as compared to their counterparts. Conclusion. The treatment outcome of all forms of tuberculosis patients in Debre Tabor health center was satisfactory as expected from effective implementation of DOTS. Although the observed successful treatment outcome was in agreement with the national target, follow-up of patients during the course of treatment to trace the treatment outcomes of transferred-out patients and assessment of other potential sociodemographic factors that could affect the treatment outcomes of TB patients were also recommended. Addisu Melese, Balew Zeleke, and Biniam Ewnete Copyright © 2016 Addisu Melese et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculosis as an Etiological Factor in Liver Abscess in Adults Wed, 10 Aug 2016 07:42:21 +0000 Background. Tuberculosis of the liver without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is considered as an uncommon diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the etiological role of tuberculosis in adult patients presenting with features of liver abscess. Methods. A total of 40 patients with liver abscess were included in the study. The liver abscess aspirate was subjected to microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction to determine the role of tuberculosis as an etiological factor in liver abscess. Results. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 25% (10/40) were diagnosed with having tubercular liver abscess. In a total of 40 specimens, 2.5% (1/40) were positive for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen method, while 10% (4/40) were positive for M. tuberculosis by culture using BACTEC 460 and the yield increased to 25% (10/40) by polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis. Conclusion. 25% of the patients presenting with liver abscess had tubercular etiology without features of active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis. Liver can act as the primary site of involvement in the absence of activity elsewhere in the body. Tuberculosis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of liver abscess irrespective of evidence of active tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. Jaideep Dey, Hitender Gautam, Shwetha Venugopal, Chhavi Porwal, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Naresh Gupta, and Urvashi B. Singh Copyright © 2016 Jaideep Dey et al. All rights reserved. Impact of WHO 2010 Guidelines on Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation among Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Clinics with and without Onsite HIV Services in the Democratic Republic of Congo Tue, 09 Aug 2016 12:22:07 +0000 Background. We assessed the impact of WHO’s 2010 guidelines that removed the requirement of CD4 count before ART, on timely initiation of ART among HIV/TB patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. Data collected to monitor implementation of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) and linkage to HIV care from 65 and 13 TB clinics in Kinshasa and Kisangani, respectively, between November 2010 and June 2013. Results. Prior to the WHO’s 2010 guidelines, in Kinshasa, 79.1% (401/507) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART in clinics with onsite ART services compared to 50.0% (63/123) in clinics without. Following the implementation of the new guidelines, 89.8% (714/795) and 93.0% (345/371) of HIV/TB patients referred for HIV services were initiated on ART, respectively, in clinics with onsite and without onsite ART services. Similarly, in Kisangani, 69.7% (53/120) and 36.4% (16/44) in clinics with and without onsite ART service, respectively, were initiated on ART prior to the 2010 guidelines and 88.8% (135/152) and 72.6% (106/146), respectively, after the new guidelines. Conclusion. Though implementation of the 2010 guidelines increased the proportion of HIV/TB patients initiated on ART substantially, it remained below the 100% target, particularly in clinics without onsite ART services. Marcel Yotebieng, Martine Tabala, Marie Louise Batumbula, Landry Wenzi, Emmanuel Basaki, Eugenie Mungoyo, Richard Mangala, and Frieda Behets Copyright © 2016 Marcel Yotebieng et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa Thu, 14 Jul 2016 08:59:05 +0000 Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62–3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52–2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. Limakatso Lebina, Nigel Fuller, Tolu Osoba, Lesley Scott, Katlego Motlhaoleng, Modiehi Rakgokong, Pattamukkil Abraham, Ebrahim Variava, and Neil Alexander Martinson Copyright © 2016 Limakatso Lebina et al. All rights reserved. Molecular and Growth-Based Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for Ethambutol Resistance in the United States Wed, 08 Jun 2016 08:32:45 +0000 Ethambutol (EMB) is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL) primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST) methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR) by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion. PHL and CDC test results were compared for 211 MTBC samples submitted to CDC from September 2009 through February 2011. Concordance between growth-based DST results from PHL and CDC was 88.2%. A growth-based comparison of 39 samples, where an embB mutation associated with EMB resistance was detected, revealed a higher percentage of EMB resistance by CDC (84.6%) than by PHL (59.0%) which was significant ( value = 0.002). Discordance between all growth-based test results from PHL and CDC was also significant ( value = 0.003). Most discordance was linked to false susceptibility using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 (MGIT) growth-based system. Our analysis supports coalescing growth-based and molecular results for an informed interpretation of potential EMB resistance. Mitchell A. Yakrus, Jeffrey Driscoll, Allison McAlister, David Sikes, Denise Hartline, Beverly Metchock, and Angela M. Starks Copyright © 2016 Mitchell A. Yakrus et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of “Transfer-Out” Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Gondar, Ethiopia Mon, 30 May 2016 13:44:35 +0000 Background. During tuberculosis treatment, patients may transfer to continue treatment at another health facility. To ensure adherence until treatment completion, keeping track of patients is paramount. This study aimed to investigate treatment outcomes of patients who transferred out from the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort evaluation of patients registered from 2009 to 2013. Treatment outcomes were collected from the TB registers of receiving units using a standardized data capture format. Results. During the study period 3,707 patients initiated treatment and 47.5% (1,760) transferred out. The study evaluated the outcome of 26% (457/1,760) patients, of whom 403 (88%) arrived in the receiving units. Overall, 79% were successfully treated and 13.8% transferred out for a second time. For all transferred-out cases, treatment outcomes were not reported to the referring unit. Conclusion and Recommendation. About half of the patients were transferred out to complete treatment elsewhere. Although successful treatment outcome was obtained in 79% of patients, these results were not fed back to the referring unit. Implementing a clear mechanism to communicate the arrival of and treatment outcome for transfer-out patients and appropriate patient education on treatment unit selection before treatment and during transfer-out are recommended. Tadesse Belayneh, Afework Kassu, Desalgne Tigabu, Gashaw Asmare, Sofanit Tilaye, and Eveline Klinkenberg Copyright © 2016 Tadesse Belayneh et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculosis Case Finding in Benin, 2000–2014 and Beyond: A Retrospective Cohort and Time Series Study Mon, 16 May 2016 13:24:06 +0000 Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The “R” software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria) and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 presumptive cases, 54303 (22%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Annual notified case numbers increased, with the highest reported in 2011. New pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) represented 78%  ± SD 2%. Retreatment cases decreased from 10% to 6% and new pulmonary clinically diagnosed cases increased from 2% to 8%. NPBCT notification rates decreased in males from 2012, in young people aged 15–34 years and in Borgou-Alibori region. There was a seasonal pattern in tuberculosis cases. Over 90% of NPBCT were HIV-tested with a stable HIV prevalence of 13%. The ARIMA best fit model predicted a decrease in tuberculosis cases finding in the next five years. Conclusion. Tuberculosis case notifications are predicted to decrease in the next five years if current passive case finding is used. Additional strategies are needed in the country. Serge Ade, Wilfried Békou, Mênonli Adjobimey, Omer Adjibode, Gabriel Ade, Anthony D. Harries, and Séverin Anagonou Copyright © 2016 Serge Ade et al. All rights reserved. Hematological and Biochemistry Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Guyana Tue, 12 Apr 2016 12:51:42 +0000 Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40.1 ± 13.8 (95% CI 38.6–41.7) and most were between 40 and 49 age group (27.8%, 95% CI 23.2–33.0). More males were in the study 74.4% (95% CI 69.3–78.8) than females 81% (95% CI 21.1–30.7). 30% (95% CI 25.3–35.3) had a sputum smear grade of 3+ and 62.5% (95% CI 47.0–75.7) showed a CD4 count <200. The study demonstrated significantly low hemoglobin (Hb) 91.7% (95% CI 78.2–97.1), low WBC 27.8% (95% CI 15.8–44.0), high indirect bilirubin 7.4% (95% CI 2.1–23.3), ALT 41.8% (95% CI 28.4–56.7), and AST 72.2% (95% CI 57.3–83.3) among TB-HIV patients. Homelessness RR (relative risk) 2.2 (95% CI 0.48–12.3), smoking RR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.19), and gender (male) RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.61–2.26) were main associated risk factors. Conclusions. There is slight variation among PTB and PTB-HIV coinfected patients in some hematological and biochemistry parameters. Rajini Kurup, Keon Flemming, Sudish Daniram, Shenika Marks-James, and Roberta Roberts Martin Copyright © 2016 Rajini Kurup et al. All rights reserved. Delay for First Consultation and Its Associated Factors among New Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients of Central Nepal Sun, 10 Apr 2016 08:01:26 +0000 Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health challenge in Nepal and worldwide. Most transmissions occur between the onset of symptoms and the consultation with formal health care centers. This study aimed to determine the duration of delay for the first consultation and its associated factors with unacceptable delay among the new sputum pulmonary tuberculosis cases in the central development region of Nepal. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the central development region of Nepal between January and May 2015. New pulmonary sputum positive tuberculosis patients were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire and their medical records were reviewed. Among a total of 374 patients, the magnitude of patient delay was 53.21% (95% CI: 48.12–58.28%) with a median delay of 32 days and an interquartile range of 11–70 days. The factors associated with unacceptable patient delay (duration ≥ 30 days) were residence in the rural area (adj. OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.10–8.72; value = 0.032) and DOTS center located more than 5 km away from their residences (adj. OR = 5.53, 95% CI: 2.18–13.99; value < 0.001). Unemployed patients were more likely to have patient delay (adj. OR = 7.79, 95% CI: 1.64–37.00; value = 0.010) when controlled for other variables. Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Roshan Kumar Mahato, Rajendra Koju, and Kriangsak Vaeteewootacharn Copyright © 2016 Wongsa Laohasiriwong et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin Thu, 24 Mar 2016 09:24:30 +0000 Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (), patients from “Atlantique-Littoral” (), patients aged 45–64 years (), and HIV-positive patients () among those retreated. Overall, 171 (71%) patients submitted sputum for DST, of whom (163) 95% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF and/or culture and 17 (10%) were rifampicin resistant (9 with MDR-TB and 8 monoresistant to rifampicin). For those without MDR-TB (), treatment success was 93%. Worse outcomes occurred in those with unknown HIV status (RR: 0.27; 0.05–1.45; ) while better outcomes occurred in those who relapsed (RR: 1.06, 95 CI: 1.02–1.10, ). Conclusion. In 2013, a high proportion of retreatment patients received DST. Treatment success was good although more needs to be done to systematically increase the final follow-up smear examination. Reasons of high losses to follow-up from “Oueme-Plateau” should be investigated. Serge Ade, Omer Adjibodé, Prudence Wachinou, Narcisse Toundoh, Bérénice Awanou, Gildas Agodokpessi, Dissou Affolabi, Gabriel Adè, Anthony D. Harries, and Séverin Anagonou Copyright © 2016 Serge Ade et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative Assessment of Challenges in Tuberculosis Control in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: Health Workers’ and Tuberculosis Control Program Coordinators’ Perspectives Tue, 15 Mar 2016 16:30:21 +0000 Background. Weak health systems pose many barriers to effective tuberculosis (TB) control. This study aimed at exploring health worker’s and TB control program coordinator’s perspectives on health systems challenges facing TB control in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Eight in-depth interviews with TB control program coordinators and two focus group discussions among 16 health workers were conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Thematic analysis was used to identify and analyse main themes. Results. We found that intermittent interruptions of laboratory reagents and anti-TB drugs supplies, absence of trained and motivated health workers, poor TB data documentation, lack of adherence to TB treatment guideline, and lack of access to TB diagnostic tools at peripheral health institutions were challenges facing the TB control program performance in the study zone. Conclusions. Ensuring uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drugs and laboratory reagents to all health institutions is essential. Continuous refresher training of health workers on standard TB care and data handling and developing and implementing a sound retention strategy to attract and motivate health professionals to work in rural areas are necessary interventions to improve the TB control program performance in the study zone. Senedu B. Gebreegziabher, Solomon A. Yimer, and Gunnar A. Bjune Copyright © 2016 Senedu B. Gebreegziabher et al. All rights reserved. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study Sun, 28 Feb 2016 12:39:16 +0000 Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735), 663 (2.2%) individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended. Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Hiwot Kassa Woreta, Mengistu Mekonnen Kelkay, and Tesfaye Demeke Ashenafie Copyright © 2016 Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda et al. All rights reserved. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia Mon, 01 Feb 2016 13:37:06 +0000 Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05–46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34–34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers. Sifrash Meseret Gelaw Copyright © 2016 Sifrash Meseret Gelaw. All rights reserved. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Mimicking Asthma Sun, 20 Dec 2015 13:18:13 +0000 Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as tuberculosis infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The clinical symptoms of the diseases are nonspecific. Chronic cough is the major symptom of the disease. The diagnosis is often delayed due to its nonspecific presentation and misdiagnosed as bronchial asthma. This case is presented to recall the notion that the endobronchial tuberculosis can mimic asthma and the importance of bronchoscopic evaluation in a patient with chronic cough and treatment resistant asthma. Serap Argun Baris, Tuğba Onyilmaz, Ilknur Basyigit, and Hasim Boyaci Copyright © 2015 Serap Argun Baris et al. All rights reserved. Performance of LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Positive Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:23:40 +0000 Background. Despite its lower sensitivity, smear microscopy remains the main diagnostic method for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in resource-limited countries as TB culturing methods like LJ (Lowenstein-Jensen) are expensive to use as a routine base. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of LED-FM for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Zewditu Memorial Hospital and Teklehaimanot Health Center HIV/ART clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Each sample was stained with ZN and Auramine O staining and examined with bright-field microscope and LED-FM microscope, respectively. LJ culture was used as a reference. Results. Out of 178 study participants, twenty-four (13.5%) patients were confirmed as positive for MTB with LJ culture. The yield of ZN microscopy and LED-FM in direct and concentrated sample was 3.9%, 8.4%, 6.2%, and 8.4%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of direct ZN microscopy were 29.2%, 100%, 100%, and 90.1%, respectively, and of LED-FM microscopy in direct sputum sample were 62.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.5%, respectively. Conclusion. LED-FM has better sensitivity for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals as compared to conventional ZN microscopy. LED-FM can be used as an alternative to conventional ZN microscopy. Konjit Getachew, Tamrat Abebe, Abebaw Kebede, Adane Mihret, and Getachew Melkamu Copyright © 2015 Konjit Getachew et al. All rights reserved. Association of Genetic Polymorphisms of IFNGR1 with the Risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Zahedan, Southeast Iran Sun, 15 Nov 2015 08:21:41 +0000 Aim. The present study was undertaken to find out the possible association between interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) receptor 1 (IFNGR1) gene polymorphisms and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a sample of Iranian population. Methods. Polymorphisms of IFNGR1 rs1327474 (−611 A/G), rs11914 (+189 T/G), rs7749390 (+95 C/T), and rs137854905 (27-bp ins/del) were determined in 173 PTB patients and 164 healthy subjects. Results. Our findings showed that rs11914 TG genotypes decreased the risk of PTB in comparison with TT (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.21–0.62, and ). The rs11914 G allele decreased the risk of PTB compared with T allele (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25–0.68, and ). IFNGR1 rs7749390 CT genotype decreased the risk of PTB in comparison with CC genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32–0.95, and ). No significant association was found between IFNGR1 rs1327474 A/G polymorphism and risk/protective of PTB. The rs137854905 (27-bp I/D) variant was not polymorphic in our population. Conclusion. Our findings showed that IFNGR1 rs11914 and rs7749390 variants decreased the risk of PTB susceptibility in our population. Mohammad Naderi, Mohammad Hashemi, Maryam Rezaei, and Abolhassan Safdari Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Naderi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of TB Case Finding through Systematic Contact Investigation, Chhattisgarh, India Mon, 06 Jul 2015 08:45:25 +0000 Rationale. Contact investigation is an established tool for early case detection of tuberculosis (TB). In India, contact investigation is not often conducted, despite national policy, and the yield of contact investigation is not well described. Objective. To determine the yield of evaluating household contacts of sputum smear-positive TB cases in Rajnandgaon district, Chhattisgarh, India. Methods. Among 14 public health care facilities with sputum smear microscopy services, home visits were conducted to identify household contacts of all registered sputum smear-positive TB cases. We used a standardized protocol to screen for clinical symptoms suggestive of active TB with additional referral for chest radiograph and sputa collection. Results. From December 2010 to May 2011, 1,556 household contacts of 312 sputum smear-positive TB cases were identified, of which 148 (9.5%) were symptomatic. Among these, 109 (73.6%) were evaluated by sputum examination resulting in 11 cases (10.1%) of sputum smear-positive TB and 4 cases (3.6%) of smear-negative TB. Household visits contributed additional 63% TB cases compared to passive case detection alone. Conclusion. A standard procedure for conducting household contact investigation identified additional TB cases in the community and offered an opportunity to initiate isoniazid chemoprophylaxis among children. Kshitij Khaparde, Pawan Jethani, Puneet K. Dewan, Sreenivas A. Nair, Madhav Rao Deshpande, Srinath Satyanarayana, Shamim Mannan, and Patrick K. Moonan Copyright © 2015 Kshitij Khaparde et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Tuberculosis, Drug Susceptibility Testing, and Genotyping of Mycobacterial Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Dessie, Ethiopia Tue, 09 Jun 2015 16:10:50 +0000 Due to their initially seemingly high cost, timely diagnosis and effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are usually hampered by lack or shortage of resources in many high TB burden countries. However, the benefits of effective treatment can eventually outweigh those of empirical treatment. Here, a cross-sectional study was conducted on samples from smear-positive new and retreatment TB patients. Data on sociodemographic and HIV status were collected. Samples were cultured for identification, conventional drug sensitivity testing, and molecular typing by deletion typing and spoligotyping. The results showed the youth were disproportionately affected. New cases were being treated following general treatment guidelines only. Monoresistance or multiple drug resistance was found in 16.5% of new patients. Spoligotyping showed that there were 44 patterns with families H3 and T1 (lineage 4) and CAS-Delhi (lineage 3) being dominant. Some rare patterns from lineage 7 were also found. Spoligotype pattern, HIV positivity, and previous treatment were not associated with drug resistance. That the vast majority of the patients were new cases and young and the large number of these patients with mono- or multiple drug resistance indicate that most TB cases are due to recent transmissions and that urgent actions are needed to curb the transmissions. Minwuyelet Maru, Solomon H. Mariam, Tekle Airgecho, Endalamaw Gadissa, and Abraham Aseffa Copyright © 2015 Minwuyelet Maru et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and the Conventional Sputum Microscopy in Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northern Thailand Thu, 30 Apr 2015 17:23:14 +0000 Background. Despite low sensitivity in detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sputum acid-fast smear remains the main diagnostic method. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Xpert MTBRIF assay versus conventional sputum acid-fast smear. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Patients who were ≥15 years old and had clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Results. 109 specimens from 57 patients were included. Using MGIT sputum culture as a reference standard, the sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPEC) for Xpert were 95.3% (95% CI, 84.2%, 99.4%) and 86.4% (95% CI, 75.7%, 93.6%). The SEN and SPEC for sputum acid-fast smear were 60.5% (95% CI, 44.4%, 75.0%) and 98.5% (95% CI, 91.8%, 100%). Xpert had significantly higher sensitivity ( value < 0.001) and lower specificity ( value = 0.022) than sputum acid-fast smear. Among 43 culture-proven M. tuberculosis specimens, sensitivity of Xpert was 100% (95% CI, 86.7%, 100%) in acid-fast positive smears () and 88.2% (95% CI, 63.5%, 98.5%) in acid-fast negative smears (). Conclusions. The good sensitivity and specificity of Xpert assay in detecting M. tuberculosis from sputum specimens may help in early diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, particularly among patients who had acid-fast negative sputum smear. Kanokwan Pinyopornpanish, Romanee Chaiwarith, Chansom Pantip, Rassamee Keawvichit, Kanlaya Wongworapat, Phadungkiat Khamnoi, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, and Thira Sirisanthana Copyright © 2015 Kanokwan Pinyopornpanish et al. All rights reserved.