The microstructural and quantitative texture analyses of a naturally deformed calcite mylonite, a dolomite mylonite and a dolomitic calcite mylonite reveal different texture asymmetries for comparable deformation conditions. Calcite shows a c-axis maximum rotated against the shear sense with regard to the main shear plane. In contrast, the dolomite shows a c-axis maximum rotated with the shear sense. In accordance with the experimental and simulated textures from the literature, this difference proves e-twinning and r-slip for calcite and f-twinning and c-slip for dolomite as the main deformation mechanisms. The dolomitic calcite mylonite shows for both the calcite and the dolomite a c-axis maximum rotated against the shear sense. On account of the microstructure of this sample, the dolomite texture has been passively overtaken from the deformation texture of calcite during a late-deformative dolomitization. The results significantly contribute to the interpretation that the sampled shear zone is a transpressive strike–slip fault.