Table of Contents
Textures and Microstructures
Volume 34, Issue 2-3, Pages 91-103

In-Plane Texturing in Sputtered Films

University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA

Received 8 October 1999

Copyright © 2000 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Films consisting of Mo, Cr, and Ta have all been found to display well-defined biaxial textures when grown under certain conditions. A well-defined out-of-plane texture evolves within the first ~ 100 nm of the film, followed by the evolution of a preferred crystallographic orientation in the plane of the film. These effect were studied using X-ray pole figure analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and high resolution grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS). It has been found that in-plane texture evolves only when there is, on average, oblique adatom flux incident onto the substrate. Further, the type of out-of-plane texture can be controlled by altering the deposition conditions. Parameters including cathode-to-substrate distance, deposition rate, average angle of adatom incidence, and sputter gas pressure, have been shown to determine the type out-of-plane texture, as well as the rate of in-plane texture evolution. The studies conducted have shown that it is possible to create and control biaxially textured films and multilayers made of a variety of materials. A recent model which describes this phenomena is discussed.