Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Production and Environmental Protection: 2nd International Nitrogen Conference 2001View this Special Issue
Research Article | Open Access
The Recovery of Damaged Pine Forests in an Area Formerly Polluted by Nitrogen
An area in Lithuania containing coniferous stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce that were dead or damaged due to nitrogen pollution by a nitrogen fertilizer plant (JV Achema) was found to have expanded between 1974 and 1989 to a distance of 20 to 25 km northeast of the plant in the direction of prevailing winds. Over the last 10 years, when nitrogen pollution by the plant had decreased, a clear process of recovery of the damaged ecosystems could be observed. The following features of this process as it occurred in damaged Scots pine stands are discussed: (1) refoliation (or decreased defoliation) of damaged trees, where a clear positive trend could be observed; (2) changes in the species composition and in the covering by ground vegetation, where small changes and indication of less-nitrophilous species coverage could be detected; and (3) chemical and acidity changes in Luvisols and Arenosols, where a significant decrease could be seen especially concerning nitrate concentrations.